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中国人民解放军总医院老年心血管病研究所
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中华老年多器官疾病杂志编辑委员会
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创刊人 王士雯
总编辑 范利
副总编辑 陈韵岱
执行主编 叶大训
编辑部主任 王雪萍
ISSN 1671-5403
CN 11-4786
创刊时间 2002年
出版周期 月刊
邮发代号 82-408
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章桂芬,王桦,叶光明,刘国栋,李晨芳,檀春玲.湖北钟祥市乡镇92例长寿老人慢性病调查[J].中华老年多器官疾病杂志,2018,17(2):92~96
湖北钟祥市乡镇92例长寿老人慢性病调查
Survey on chronic diseases in longevous old people living in villages or towns of Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province
投稿时间:2017-08-31  修订日期:2017-10-02
DOI:10.11915/j.issn.1671-5403.2018.02.020
中文关键词:  慢性病;共病;预防;长寿老人
英文关键词:chronic disease; comorbidity; prevention; longevous elderly
基金项目:湖北省老龄办资助项目(2017004)
作者单位E-mail
章桂芬 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071  
王桦 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071 hospwh@sina.com 
叶光明 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071  
刘国栋 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071  
李晨芳 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071  
檀春玲 武汉大学中南医院老年医学科,武汉 430071  
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中文摘要:
      目的 调查湖北钟祥市92例长寿老人慢性病现状,为改善长寿老人的生存质量提供科学依据。方法 根据钟祥市民政局提供的人口学信息,2013年1月至2017年4月走访湖北省钟祥市11个乡镇≥90岁的长寿老人92例,其中男性 18例,女性74例,年龄90~113(99.3±4.7)岁,由经过统一培训的工作人员对长寿老人进行健康综合评估和慢性病调查,并比较男女差异。采用SPSS 20.0统计软件对数据进行分析。组间比较采用t检验、χ2检验或Fisher确切概率法。结果 健康综合评估结果表明长寿老人健康状况良好,大部分老人生活能自理,能够完成穿衣、洗澡、散步等活动。41.30%(38/92)的老人认知正常,46.74%(43/92)的老人虽有轻度认知功能障碍,但能与亲属及身边人进行良好的沟通交流,仅18.48%(17/92)的老人有抑郁表现,世界卫生组织生存质量测定简表(WHOQOL-BREF)评分表明老人生存质量良好,自我满意度高。相比女性长寿老人,男性长寿老人独居比率高(χ2=7.031,P<0.05)、文盲人数少(χ2=9.218,P<0.05)、有吸烟史人数多(χ2=31.2,P<0.001)。每人罹患慢性病1~7(3.13±1.32)种。10.87%(10/92)的老人仅患1种疾病,88.04%(81/92)的老人2~6种慢性病共病,1.09%(1/92)的老人7种慢性病共病。罹患的16种慢性病中前三位分别为高血压72.83%(67/92)、营养不良与营养不良风险61.95%(57/92)和血脂异常58.70%(54/92)。男女慢性病共病状况差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 钟祥市长寿老人罹患慢性病中高血压患病率最高,糖尿病、痴呆和癌症患病率低。大部分老人多种慢性病共存,但大多可完成基本日常生活活动,同时心理状态良好,但仍需改善营养状况,谨防跌倒,以降低致残率,进一步提高生活质量。
英文摘要:
      Objective To survey the current status of chronic diseases in 92 longevous old people living in Zhongxiang City in order to provide a scientific basis to improve their quality of life. Methods According to the demographic information provided by Zhongxiang Bureau of Civil Affairs, 92 longevous people (≥90 years old) who were residents in 11 villages or towns were visited and surveyed during January 2013 and April 2017. They were 18 males and 74 females, and at an age of 90-113 (99.3±4.7) years. Comprehensive health assessment and chronic diseases survey were carried out on the subjects by trained staffs. The differences between the males and the females were investigated. SPSS statistics 20.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Student’s t test, Chi-square test, or Fisher’s exact test was employed for the comparison between the 2 groups. Results The results of the comprehensive health assessment showed that the longevous subjects were in good health. Most of them could take care of themselves and complete daily activities such as dressing, bathing and walking. Some subjects (41.30%, 38/92) had normal cognition, while some (46.74%, 43/92) had mild cognitive dysfunction, but were able to communicate well with their relatives and others. Only 18.48% (17/92) of the participants had depressive symptoms. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF Scale showed that the elderly had good quality of life and high self-satisfaction. Compared with the female subjects, the male ones had higher ratio of living alone (χ2=7.031, P<0.05), lower ratio of illiteracy (χ2=9.218, P<0.05), and higher ratio of smoking history (χ2=31.2, P<0.001). Each person suffered from 1 to 7 (3.13±1.32) kinds of chronic diseases. Only 10.87%(10/92) participants had only 1 chronic disease, 88.04%(81/92) had 2 to 6 kinds, and 1.09%(1/92) had even 7 kinds. Among the 16 common chronic diseases, the top 3 were hypertension (72.83%, 67/92), malnutrition and risk of malnutrition (61.95%, 57/92), anddyslipidemia 58.70% (54/92). There was no significant difference in the comorbid conditions between the male and female subjects (P>0.05). Conclusion The prevalence rate of hypertension is the highest, while those of diabetes, dementia and cancer are quite low in the longevous people in Zhongxiang City. Although most of them suffer from a variety of chronic diseases, they still can complete basic daily activities and enjoy good mental status. However, improving their nutritional status and being cautious for falls are of great significance to reduce their morbidity and thus improve their quality of life.
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