2020 Vol. 17, No. 11
Incident frailty and cognitive impairment by heart failure status in older patients with atrial fibrillation: the SAGE-AF study
2020, 17(11): 653-658. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.007
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) frequently co-occur in older individuals. Among patients with AF, HF increases risks for stroke and death, but the associations between HF and incident cognition and physical impairment remain unknown. We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and prospective associations between HF, cognition, and frailty among older patients with AF. Methods The SAGE-AF (Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Elements in AF) study enrolled 1244 patients with AF (mean age 76 years, 48% women) from five practices in Massachusetts and Georgia. HF at baseline was identified from electronic health records using ICD-9/10 codes. At baseline and 1-year, frailty was assessed by Cardiovascular Health Survey score and cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Results Patients with prevalent HF (n = 463, 37.2%) were older, less likely to be non-Hispanic white, had less education, and had greater cardiovascular comorbidity burden and higher CHA2DS2VASC and HAS-BLED scores than patients without HF (all P's < 0.01). In multivariable adjusted regression models, HF (present vs. absent) was associated with both prevalent frailty (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64-3.46) and incident frailty at 1 year (aOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.37-4.51). HF was also independently associated with baseline cognitive impairment (aOR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.22-2.11), but not with developing cognitive impairment at 1 year (aOR 1.04, 95%CI: 0.64-1.70). Conclusions Among ambulatory older patients with AF, the co-existence of HF identifies individuals with physical and cognitive impairments who are at higher short-term risk for becoming frail. Preventive strategies to this vulnerable subgroup merit consideration.
Impact of proton pump inhibitors on clinical outcomes in patients after acute myocardial infarction: a propensity score analysis from China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) registry
2020, 17(11): 659-665. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.008
Background Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended by the latest guidelines to reduce the risk of bleeding in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, previous pharmacodynamic and clinical studies have reported controversial results on the interaction between PPI and the P2Y12 inhibitor clopidogrel. We investigated the impact of PPIs use on in-hospital outcomes in AMI patients, aiming to provide a new insight on the value of PPIs. Methods A total of 23, 380 consecutive AMI patients who received clopidogrel with or without PPIs in the China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) registry were analyzed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of in-hospital cardiac death, re-infarction and stroke. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control potential baseline confounders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of PPIs use on MACCE and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Results Among the whole AMI population, a large majority received DAPT and 67.5% were co-medicated with PPIs. PPIs use was associated with a decreased risk of MACCE (Before PSM OR: 0.857, 95% CI: 0.742-0.990, P = 0.0359; after PSM OR: 0.862, 95% CI: 0.768-0.949, P = 0.0245) after multivariate adjustment. Patients receiving PPIs also had a lower risk of cardiac death but a higher risk of complicating with stroke. When GIB occurred, an alleviating trend of GIB severity was observed in PPIs group. Conclusions Our study is the first nation-wide large-scale study to show evidence on PPIs use in AMI patients treated with DAPT. We found that PPIs in combination with clopidogrel was associated with decreased risk for MACCE in AMI patients, and it might have a trend to mitigate GIB severity. Therefore, PPIs could become an available choice for AMI patients during hospitalization.
Comparison of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the prediction of thin-cap fibroatheroma determined by intravascular optical coherence tomography
2020, 17(11): 666-673. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.003
Background The correlation among the ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/ HDL-C), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and thin-cap fibroatheroma has not yet been established. Methods It was a single center, retrospective observational study. In total, we recruited 421 patients (82.4% men; mean age 65.73 ± 10.44 years) with one culprit vessel which determined by intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT). The thinnest-capped fibroatheroma (TCFA) group was defined as lipid contents in > 2 quadrants, with the thinnest fibrous cap measuring less than 65 μm. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were carried out to explore the relationship between lipoprotein ratios, TCFA and other characteristics of plaque. To compare different ratios, the area under curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was assessed. Results OCT was performed in 421 patients (TCFA group (n = 109), non-TCFA group (n = 312)). LDL-C/HDL-C in the TCFA group was significantly higher than in the non-TCFA group (2.95 ± 1.20 vs. 2.43 ± 0.92, P < 0.05), as was TC/LDL in TCFA and non-TCFA group (4.57 ± 1.58 vs. 4.04 ± 1.13, P < 0.05). Both LDL-C/HDL-C (OR: 1.002 (1.002-1.003), P < 0.05) and TC/HDL-C (OR: 1.001 (1.001-1.004), P < 0.05) were considered independent factors for the prediction of TCFA according to the logistic regression. Based on the AUC comparison, LDL-C/ HDL-C and TC/HDL-C had no significant difference statistically (LDL-C/HDL-C AUC: 0.63; TC/HDL-C AUC: 0.61; P = 0.10) for the prediction of TCFA. Conclusions LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C could be the independent factors for predicting the presence of TCFA, indicating coronary plaque vulnerability in CAD patients. Moreover, TC/HDL-C also showed a comparative performance for the prediction of TCFA as LDL-C/HDL-C.
Plasma levels of Elabela are associated with coronary angiographic severity in patients with acute coronary syndrome
2020, 17(11): 674-679. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.004
Background Elabela (ELA) was newly discovered as a novel endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor (APJ) which has demonstrated to be crucial for cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction, hypertension and heart failure. Previous experiments have revealed that ELA reduced arterial pressure and exerted positive inotropic effects on the heart. However, the role of plasma ELA levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its relationship with severity of coronary arteries have not been investigated. Methods Two hundred and one subjects who were hospitalized for chest pain and underwent coronary angiography were recruited in this study. One hundred and seventy five patients were diagnosed with ACS and twenty-six subjects with negative coronary angiography were included in the control group. Plasma ELA levels, routine blood test, blood lipid, liver and kidney functions were measured. The number of coronary arteries and SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score of coronary lesions were used to evaluate the extent of coronary artery stenosis. Results ELA in patients with ACS was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma ELA levels among patients with single-, double- and triple-vessel diseases. However, in the generalized additive model (GAM), there was a threshold nonlinear correlation between the ELA levels and Syntax I score (P < 0.001). Plasma ELA levels were positively correlated with the Syntax I score when the ELA levels ranged from 63.47 to 85.49 ng/mL. There was no significant association between the plasma ELA levels and the extent of coronary artery stenosis when the ELA levels were less than 63.47 ng/mL or higher than 85.49 ng/mL. Conclusion The present study demonstrates for the first time that plasma ELA levels are increased in patients with ACS. The rise in endogenous ELA levels was associated with severity of coronary stenosis and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ACS.
Gender differences in clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the KAMIR-NIH Registry
2020, 17(11): 680-693. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.006
Background There are numerous but conflicting data regarding gender differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, gender differences in clinical outcomes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PCI in Asian population remain uncertain because of the under-representation of Asian in previous trials. Methods A total of 13, 104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into male (n = 8021, 75.9%) and female (n = 2547, 24.1%). We compared the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, 30-days and 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in women with those in men after AMI by using propensity score (PS) matching. Results Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities and more often presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Over the median follow-up of 363 days, gender differences in both 30-days and 1-year MACCE as well as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding risk were not observed in the PS matched population (30-days MACCE: 5.3% vs. 4.7%, log-rank P = 0.494, HR = 1.126, 95% CI: 0.800-1.585; 1-year MACCE: 9.3% vs. 9.0%, log-rank P = 0.803, HR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.802-1.328; TIMI minor bleeding: 4.9% vs. 3.9%, log-rank P= 0.215, HR = 1.255, 95% CI: 0.869-1.814). Conclusions Among Korean AMI population undergoing contemporary PCI, women, as compared with men, had different clinical and angiographic characteristics but showed similar 30-days and 1-year clinical outcomes. The risk of bleeding after PCI was comparable between men and women during one-year follow up.
Ablation strategies for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
2020, 17(11): 694-703. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.001
Background Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) has significantly evolved over the past decade. However, different ablation strategies showed inconsistency in acute and long-term outcomes. Methods We searched the databases of Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library through October 17, 2019 for studies describing the clinical outcomes of VT ablation in ARVC. Data including VT recurrence, all-cause mortality, acute procedural efficacy and major procedural complications were extracted. A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis was further performed in comparative studies of endo-epicardial versus endocardial-only ablation. Results A total of 24 studies with 717 participants were enrolled. The literatures of epicardial ablation were mainly published after 2010 with total ICD implantation of 73.7%, acute efficacy of 89.8%, major complication of 5.2%, follow-up of 28.9 months, VT freedom of 75.3%, all-cause mortality of 1.1% and heart transplantation of 0.6%. Meta-analysis of 10 comparative studies revealed that compared with endocardial-only approach, epicardial ablation significantly decreased VT recurrence (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.85; P = 0.010), but somehow increased major procedural complications (OR: 4.64; 95% CI: 1.28-16.92; P= 0.02), with not evident improvement of acute efficacy (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 0.98-7.65; P = 0.051) or all-cause mortality (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.09-8.31; P = 0.90). Conclusion Catheter ablation for VT in ARVC is feasible and effective. Epicardial ablation is associated with better long-term VT freedom, but with more major complications and unremarkable survival or acute efficacy benefit.