2012 Vol. 9, No. 1
Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period. Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital, Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in the study (3570 males, mean age, 72.2 ± 10.5 years; 1390 females, mean age, 72.0 ± 10.4 years). Results The prevalence of CVD in COPD patients was 51.7%. The three most prevalent CVDs were ischemic heart disease (28.9%), heart failure (19.6%), and arrhythmia (12.6%). During the 10-year study period, the prevalence of various CVDs in COPD patients showed a gradual increasing trend with increasing age. There was higher morbidity due to ischemic heart disease (P P P Conclusions The prevalence of CVD in patients hospitalized for COPD in Beijing was high. Age, sex and CVD trends, as well as life style changes, should be considered when prevention and control strategies are formulated.
Background Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomaly. Transcatheter CAF closure has been introduced using various materials, but only few data are available on the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC). The advantage of using GDC for transcatheter CAF closure is more controllable, therefore much safer when compared to other coils. This report is about our experience in transcatheter closure of CAF using fibered GDC in our hospital. Methods & Results From 2002 to 2007, there were 10 patients with CAFs (age range: 28 to 56 year-old, 7 males) who underwent transcatheter CAF closure. There were a total of 19 CAFs which originated from right coronary (n = 5), left circumflex (n = 3), left anterior descending artery (n = 10) and left main trunk (n = 1). Median number of coil deployment for each fistula was 3 (range: 1 to 6). The pulmonary artery was the most common site of the distal communication of CAFs (n = 14), followed by right atrium (n = 3), left atrium (n = 1) and left ventricle (n = 1). Immediate coronary angiography after GDC deployment revealed no residual shunt in 12 (63.2%) CAFs, significant reduction of the flow in 5 (26.3%), while 2 (10.5%) could not be closed due to small size. Nine (90%) patients underwent a repeated angiography within 3 to 8 months. Among 12 CAFs that were occluded immediately post-deployment, there were 2 CAFs with insignificant residual flow. Among 6 CAFs with significantly decreased flow immediately post-deployment, 2 were occluded totally in the follow-up angiography. In total, 12 (70.5%) CAFs were occluded completely and 5 (29.5%) CAFs still had insignificant residual flow, which did not need any additional coil deployment. During a mean follow up of 4.3 ± 0.7 year, all patients remained symptom and complication free. Conclusions The fibered GDC is a safe and effective method for percutaneous closure of the CAFs.
Objective To examine the effects of exogenously administered intermedin (IMD, adrenomedullin-2) on arterial blood pressure, cardiac function and the cardiovascular IMD receptor system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as well as to investigate the associated mechanisms. Methods Thirteen week-old male rats were divided in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) group (n = 12), SHR group (n = 12), IMD group (SHRs infused with IMD 1-47 500 ng/kg per hour, n = 12), and ADM group (SHRs infused with adrenomedullin 500 ng/kg per hour, n = 12). Results A two-week continuous administration of low dose IMD 1-47 via mini-osmotic pumps markedly reduced blood pressure, the maximal rates of increase and decrease of left-ventricle pressure development (LV ± dp/dtmax), left ventricular systolic pressure and heart rate in SHRs. Furthermore, IMD also inhibited protein over-expression of cardiovascular IMD receptors, myocardial Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins (RAMP1 and RAMP2), aortic RAMP1, RAMP2, RAMP3, and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR); suppressed up-regulation of aortic RAMP1, RAMP2, RAMP3 and CRLR gene expression; and markedly elevated the mRNA abundance of myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and myocardial brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Additionally, IMD 1-47 administration in SHRs increased aortic cAMP concentration and reduced myocardial cAMP concentration. Conclusion These findings support the speculation that IMD, as a cardiovascular active peptide, is involved in blood pressure reduction and cardiac function amelioration during hypertension. The mechanism underlying this effect may involve IMD binding of a receptor complex formed by RAMPs and CRLR, and consequential regulation of cAMP levels and other cardiovascular active factors, such as ANP and BNP.
Objective Several studies have indicated that miR-15a, miR-15b and miR-16 may be the important regulators of apoptosis. Since attenuate apoptosis could protect myocardium and reduce infarction size, the present study was aimed to find out whether these miRNAs participate in regulating myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Apoptosis in mice hearts subjected to I/R was detected by TUNEL assay in vivo, while flow cytometry analysis followed by Annexin V/PI double stain in vitro was used to detect apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes which were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Taqman real-time quantitative PCR was used to confirm whether miR-15a/15b/16 were involved in the regulation of cardiac I/R and H/R. Results Compared to those of the controls, I/R or H/R induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was significantly increased both in vivo (24.4% ± 9.4% vs. 2.2% ± 1.9%, P n = 5) and in vitro (14.12% ± 0.92% vs. 2.22% ± 0.08%). The expression of miR-15a and miR-15b, but not miR-16, was increased in the mice I/R model, and the results were consistent in the H/R model. Conclusions Our data indicate miR-15 and miR-15b are up-regulated in response to cardiac I/R injury, therefore, down-regulation of miR-15a/b may be a promising strategy to reduce myocardial apoptosis induced by cardiac I/R injury.
Objective To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of XbaI and MspI loci of apolipoprotein B (ApoB) gene and -75 bp, +83 bp loci of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) gene and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Kazaks of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Methods These loci were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-PFLP). Two hundred and five patients with CHD and two hundred and thirty six controls were involved. Results There were significant distinctions among low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio between the two groups, but no significant distinction among the polymorphism frequencies of the four sites between the two groups. The polymorphism coalition frequency of X--/Ms++/M1+-/M2++ (named Coalition 11) was significantly higher in CHD compared to the control group (14.6% vs. 7.2%, P Conclusion Coalition 11 of the 4 loci polymorphisms of the ApoB and ApoAI genes was correlated with CHD in Kazaks, and perhaps the ratio of ApoAI/ApoB was the most diagnostic parameter related with CHD among all lipid parameters. CHD may also be associated with Coalition 5, and, perhaps, Coalition 3 may have been confirmed as a protection factor against CHD, if more samples were enrolled.
Transient stress-induced cardiomyopathies have been increasingly recognized and while rare, they tend to affect elderly women more than other demographic groups. One type, often called tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), is typically triggered by significant emotional or physical stress and is associated with chest pain, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and abnormal cardiac enzymes. Significant left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities usually include an akinetic “ballooning” apex with normal or hyperdynamic function of the base. A second type, often called neurogenic stunned myocardium, typically associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, also usually presents with ECG changes and positive enzymes, but the typical wall motion abnormalities seen include normal basal and apical left ventricular contraction with akinesis of the mid-cavity in a circumferential fashion. The pathophysiology, clinical care and typical courses, are reviewed.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common vascular disease that affects elderly population. Open surgical repair is regarded as the gold standard technique for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm, however, endovascular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its first introduction in 1990s. As a less invasive technique, endovascular aneurysm repair has been confirmed to be an effective alternative to open surgical repair, especially in patients with co-morbid conditions. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and post-operative follow-up. 2D CT images are complemented by a number of 3D reconstructions which enhance the diagnostic applications of CT angiography in both planning and follow-up of endovascular repair. CT has the disadvantage of high cummulative radiation dose, of particular concern in younger patients, since patients require regular imaging follow-ups after endovascular repair, thus, exposing patients to repeated radiation exposure for life. There is a trend to change from CT to ultrasound surveillance of endovascular aneurysm repair. Medical image visualizations demonstrate excellent morphological assessment of aneurysm and stent-grafts, but fail to provide hemodynamic changes caused by the complex stent-graft device that is implanted into the aorta. This article reviews the treatment options of abdominal aortic aneurysm, various image visualization tools, and follow-up procedures with use of different modalities including both imaging and computational fluid dynamics methods. Future directions to improve treatment outcomes in the follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair are outlined.
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) has been recognized since at least 1940. A review of the literature identifies differences in the definition for this condition and wide variations in treatment and outcomes. This syndrome appears to describe a group of conditions with differing pathophysiology, which requires treatment tailored to the true underlying disorder. Patients need to be fully evaluated to guide treatment. Further research is required to effectively classify the range of underlying pathophysiology that can produce this syndrome and to guide optimal management.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and becomes increasingly prevalent among patients aged 65 years and older. Elderly patients are at a higher risk for complications and accelerated physical deconditioning after a cardiovascular event, especially compared to their younger counterparts. The last few decades were privy to multiple studies that demonstrated the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and exercise therapy on mortality, exercise capacity, psychological risk factors, inflammation, and obesity among patients with CHD. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the available data in this field pertains to younger patients. A viable explanation is that older patients are grossly underrepresented in these programs for multiple reasons starting with the patient and extending to the physician. In this article, we will review the benefits of CR programs among the elderly, as well as some of the barriers that hinder their participation.