2013 Vol. 10, No. 4
Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), as the most common form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been playing an important role in the treatment of elderly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China. In this paper, we briefly discuss on the potential benefits of CHM for elderly patients with CVDs. Initially, we summarize the characteristics of CVDs in the elderly, the present treatment of CVDs in the elderly, and the clinical applications of CHM for CVDs. Secondly, in addition to introducing the features of CHM, we discuss the differences between CHM and Western medicine. Lastly, the potential benefits of CHM are presented. We came to a conclusion that as mutual complementary, Western medicine and TCM together shall benefit the elderly patients with CVDs.
Objective Admission hyperglycemia in acute myocardial infarction (MI) is related with increased in-hospital and long term mortality and major cardiac adverse events. We aimed to investigate how admission hyperglycemia affects the short and long term outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 677 consecutive elderly patients (mean age 72.2 ± 5.4). Patients were divided into two groups according to admission blood glucose levels. Group 1: low glucose group (LLG), glucose 168 mg/dL. Results In-hospital, long term mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events were higher in the high admission blood glucose group (P 1, post-thrombolysis in MI P Conclusions Admission hyperglycemia in elderly patients presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction is an independent predictor of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events and is associated with in-hospital and long term mortality.
Background & Objectives In recent years, emerging transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative for surgery. However, with advanced age, several co-morbid factors together with contrast agent usage can cause deterioration in renal function and increase in the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with poor prognosis in patients with AKI. Therefore, many patients cannot benefit from this treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of TAVI on renal functions. Methods and Results Seventy patients, mean age of 77.6 years, underwent TAVI between July 2011 and December 2012. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by using the Cockcroft and Gault Formula. Patients were monitored for 48 h for urine output. Stage 1 AKI, according to the VARC-2 AKIN system, developed in only five (7.1%) of the patients after the procedure. There was a statistically significant increase between the mean 1st month eGFRs before (68.2 vs. 61.0, P vs. 63.6, P P st month (52.1 mL/min, P P P Conclusions In this study, we showed that the treatment of aortic stenosis through TAVI allows improvement of renal functions, and that AKI rates will be lower with careful patient selection, proper pre-procedural hydration, and careful use of contrast agent.
Objective To evaluate the long-term effects of thrombolysis on patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Data of 136 patients with acute submassive PE and low risk of bleeding were prospectively collected from January 2005 to October 2011 in a single medical center. Patients received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) plus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, TT group, n = 79) or LMWH alone (AT group, n = 57), depending on treating physician’s recommendation and patient’s preference. Echocardiography was performed at admission, 24 h, 6 and 12 months to evaluate right ventricular function. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung perfusion scan were performed on admission, at 7 days, 6 and 12 months to evaluate clot burden. Results Seventy-nine patients received r-tPA plus LMWH (TT group) while 57 received LMWH alone (AT group). The baseline characteristics and risk factors did not differ between the two groups. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure improved within two hours in both groups. Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and tricuspid regurgitation improved to a greater extent in the TT group at 24 h, and at 12 months (P P vs. 1.8% in AT). The rates of minor hemorrhages were 6.3% in TT group and 1.8% in AT group (P Conclusion In submassive PE patient who has low risk of bleeding, thrombolysis plus anticoagulation can lead to greater improvement of right ventricular dysfunction and clot burden reduction as compared to anticoagulation therapy alone.
Background & Objective Little is known about the relative efficacies of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome for geriatric patients who received either DES or BMS. Methods From January 2002 to October 2005, 199 consecutive Chinese geriatric patients (≥ 75 years old) underwent PCI with coronary DES or BMS implantation at our institution. We analyzed the major clinical end points that included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization (TLR), stent thrombosis, and bleeding complications. Results The three-year cumulative rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction were significantly lower in the DES group (6.3%, 3.6%, 5.4%) compared with the BMS group (16.2%, 11.5%, 14.9%; P vs. 4.6%, P = 0.61) or stent thrombosis (3.6% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.70). Likewise, there were no statistically significant differences in the cumulative rate for intracranial hemorrhage, or major and minor hemorrhage at three years. Conclusions DES-based PCI was associated with a significant reduction in the three-year cumulative rate of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction compared with BMS, without increased risk of TLR, stent thrombosis, or bleeding complications at three years in this group of Chinese geriatric patients.
Objective Uncertainty exists regarding the relative performance of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in octogenarians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We undertook a meta-analysis to assess outcomes for DES and BMS in octogenarians undergoing PCI. Methods Electronic data bases of PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE were searched. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing DES and BMS in octogenarians receiving PCI. The methodological qualities of eligible trials were assessed using a “risk of bias” tool. The endpoints included all-cause death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), major bleeding, and stent thrombosis (ST). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for each endpoint. Results A total of one RCT and six observational studies were included and analyzed in this meta-analysis. All trials were of acceptable quality. At 30 days, compared with DES-treated patients, BMS-treated patients had a higher incidence of mortality (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.10–13.91; P = 0.03). The OR for MACE (1.52, 95% CI: 0.56–4.17; P = 0.13), MI (0.81, 95% CI: 0.37–2.17; P = 0.23), TVR (0.75, 95% CI: 0.17–3.41; P = 0.41), major bleeding (0.77, 95% CI: 0.35–1.68; P = 0.43), and ST (1.44, 95% CI: 0.32–6.45; P = 0.33) did not reach statistical significance. At one year follow-up, the OR did not favor BMS over MACE (MACE, defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and TVR) (1.87; 95% CI: 1.22–2.87; P P P P = 0.10) and major bleeding (0.85, 95% CI: 0.47–1.55; P = 0.60) did not reach statistical significance. At > 1 year follow-up, the OR for all endpoints, including mortality, MACE, MI, TVR, major bleeding, and ST, did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that DES is associated with favorable outcomes as compared with BMS in octogenarians receiving PCI.
Objective To investigated the relationship between epicardial fat volume (EFV) and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods The study population consisted of 152 consecutive patients with CAD who underwent coronary angiography and were found to have at least 95% significiant lesion in at least one major coronary artery. EFV was assessed utilizing 64-multislice computed tomography. The patients were classifield into impaired CCC group (Group 1, Rentrop grades 0-1, n = 58), or adequate CCC (Group 2, Rentrop grades 2?3, n = 94). Results The EFV values were significantly higher in paitients with adequate CCC than in those with impaired CCC. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, EFV (OR = 1.059; 95% CI: 1.035?1.085; P = 0.001); and presence of angina were independent predictors of adequate CCC. In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the EFV value > 106.5 mL yielded an area under the curve value of 0.84, with the test sensitivity of 49.3%, and with 98.3% specifity. Conclusions High EFV, and the presence of angina independently predict adequate CCC in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This association offers new diagnostic opportinities to assess collateral flow by conventional ultrasound techniques.
Objectives To detect the efficacy and safety of combined lipid-regulating therapies in the very old patients with mixed dyslipidemia and determine an appropriate therapy for them. Methods Four hundred and fifty patients aged over 75 with mixed dyslipidemia were divided into five groups according to different combination therapies. Lipid levels and drug related adverse events were tested during the study. Results Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced in every group compared to baseline: statin + ezetimibe: -30.0% and -55.5%; statin + policosanol: -31.1% and -51.2%; statin + fibrates: -23.7% and -44.6%; statin + niacin: -25.2% and -43.0%; and niacin + fibrates: -11.3% and -23.5%. The target achievement rates of LDL-C all exceeded 50%, except in niacin + fibrates (42.0%); statin + ezetimibe: 57.0%; statin + policosanol: 56.0%; statin + niacin: 52.0%; and statin + fibrates: 50.0%. However, overall, the niacin + fibrates group was the most effective in decreasing triglyceride (TG) and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as follows: niacin + fibrates: -39.3% and 28.6%; statin + fibrates: -29.3% and 18.4%; statin + niacin: -18.5% and 16.7%; statin + ezetimibe: -17.1% and 7.1%; and statin + policosanol: -15.6% and 9.5%. The achievement rates of TG and HDL-C levels in niacin + fibrates (58.0% and 39.0%) were better than the other four groups: statin + niacin (34.0% and 34.0%), statin + fibrates (43.0% and 28.0%), statin + policosanol (30.0% and 24.0%) and statin + ezetimibe (28.0% and 25.0%). Patients in all five groups experiencing drug adverse events were only 2% and no severe adverse events occurred. Conclusions Statin + ezetimibe was the most effective group in lowering TC and LDL-C levels, while niacin + fibrates was the most effective in decreasing TG and increasing HDL-C levels. The commonly used combined lipid-regulating therapies with common dosages in this study were all quite safe and feasible for the very old patients with mixed hyperlipidemia.
Objectives High-dose statins pretreatment is reasonable before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial injury. However, the mechanism underlying this protective effect has not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of high-dose atorvastatin pretreatment on microvascular function and myocardial injury after elective PCI. Methods Eighty four patients underwent elective PCI were randomly assigned to high-dose atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/d) treatment for 7 days before PCI. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured by an intracoronary ressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal hyperemia after PCI. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured before and after procedure. Troponin I levels were obtained at baseline and 20–24 h after procedure. Results IMR values were significantly lower in high-dose group when compared to low-dose group (16.5 ± 6.1 vs. 31.2 ± 16.0, P vs. 0.022 ± 0.04, P = 0.55). However, post-PCI troponin I levels in high-dose group were significantly lower than low-dose group (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.16 ± 0.09, P 20 atm as an independent predictor of IMR > 32 (Odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.3–8.5, P = 0.02). High-dose atorvastatin was the only independent protective factor of IMR > 32 (OR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.11–0.74, P = 0.01). Conclusions The present study confirmed that diminishing microvascular impairment is one of the mechanism underlying protecting effect of high-dose statins pretreatment from myocardial injury during PCI. These suggest that high-dose statin pretreatment is reasonable in patients undergoing elective PCI.
Background Obesity is associated with unfavorable alternations in plasma lipid profile and a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disorders. Proprotein convestase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic low lipoprotein density receptor (LDLR) protein. However, the relationship between PCSK9 concentration and lipid profile in an obesity condition has less been investigated. Objective To examine the changes of plasma PCSK9 concentration in a rat model fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its correlation to lipid profile, body weight and ageing. Methods Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups, control group (fed with normal pellet for 4 weeks), and high-fat diet group (fed with 3% cholesterol enrich diet for 4 weeks). Blood samples of rats were obtained before and at days 14, 21, and 28 in both groups. The body weight, plasma metabolic parameters (glucose, lipid profile) and PCSK9 were determined at indicated time points. Results The body weights were significantly increased in rats fed with HFD compared to that in rats with normal pellets at day 28. Additionally, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in rat fed with HFD were also higher than that in rats fed with control diet while decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were found in rats with HFD at day 28. More interesting, there were no differences of plasma PCSK9 concentrations as well as hepatic expression of LDLR between the two groups at day 28. Conclusions Although the body weight and LDL-C were significantly increased in rats fed with HFD at 4 weeks, there were no differences of changes in plasma PCSK9 concentration and LDLR expression of liver tissue in both groups at baseline and day 28, suggesting that dyslipidemia in the rat model with HFD appears not to be associated with PCSK9-LDLR pathway but ageing.
Progressive aging of the population and prolongation of life expectancy have led to the rising prevalence of heart failure (HF). Despite the improvements in medical therapy, the mortality rate of this condition has remained unacceptably high, becoming the primary cause of death in the elderly population. Almost half of patients with signs and symptoms of HF are found to have a nearly normal ejection fraction, which delineates a distinct clinical syndrome, known as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). While early research focused on the importance of diastolic dysfunction, more recent studies reported the pathophysiological complexity of the disease with multiple cardiovascular abnormalities contributing to its development and progression. HF-PEF is a challenging major health problem with yet no solution as there is no evidence-based treatment which improves clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the state of current knowledge on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of HF-PEF, with particular insights on the pathological characteristics in the elderly population.
The formation of new blood vessels from existing ones is a major process of angiogenesis and it is most effective in the vascular systems. The physiological process like hypoxia inducible factors involved in the regeneration of damaged tissues varies within the vascular systems in the endothelium and could be limited due to some major angiogenic growth factors like vascular endothelial growth factor, fi-broblast growth factors and epidermal growth factor among others which bring about this cellular vascular regrowth. These physiological processes leading to cellular vascular regrowth could be a major function for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia and atherosclerosis. Estrogens are one of the known factors within the cellular mechanisms that could initiate repairs to the damaged vascular tissues, since estrogens are known inducers of angiogenesis leading to this cellular regrowth. Research has also shown that this cellular regrowth is induced by vascular angiogenic growth factors via the estrogen receptors. In this review we will attempt to summarize the main angiogenic growth factors involved in these physiological processes leading to angiogenesis and possible new mechanisms that could lead to this vascular regrowth. And also we will try to summarize some reports on the effect of estrogen on these physiological processes leading to angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases.
Survival to advanced age is exceptional in patients with unrepaired aortic coarctation. We report the case of an 81-year-old man with aortic coarctation and total occlusion who was otherwise asymptomatic. Coarctation was suspected when a femoral-radial pulse delay was noted during his routine physical examination. A 70-mmHg systolic blood pressure gradient between the upper and lower extremities was detected. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography, aortography, and coronary angiography revealed severe coarctation of the aorta, well-developed collateral vessels, and severe coronary artery disease. A staged percutaneous coronary intervention procedure was performed and the coarctation was managed conservatively with antihypertensive medication.