2014 Vol. 11, No. 2
Background The benefit of statin use after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been well established, however, the influence of the timing of statin administration has not been elucidated. The objective of this study focused on early clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods This analysis of the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction registry (KorMI) study included 3,584 STEMI patients (mean age, 63 ± 13 years; male, 2,684, 74.9%) undergoing PCI from January 2008 to June 2009. Rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: all-cause death, recurrent MI, and target lesion revascularization) were compared among patients grouped according to statin therapy timing: I, both during and after hospitalization (n = 2,653, 74%); II, only during hospitalization (n = 309, 8.6%); III, only after discharge (n = 157, 4.4%); and IV, no statin therapy (n = 465, 13%). Mean follow-up duration was 234 ± 113 days. Results Multivariate factors of statin use during hospitalization included prior statin use, multiple diseased vessels, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade III, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. At 6-month follow-up, groups III and IV had the highest MACE rates (2.3%, 3.9%, 5.1%, and 4.9% for groups I-IV, respectively, P = 0.004). After adjusting for confounders, groups II-IV had a higher MACE risk than group I (hazard ratio (HR): 3.20, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.31–7.86, P = 0.011; HR: 3.84, 95%CI: 1.47–10.02, P = 0.006; and HR: 3.17, 95%CI: 1.59–6.40, P = 0.001; respectively). Conclusions This study, based on the national registry database, shows early and continuous statin therapy improves early outcomes of STEMI patients after PCI in real-world clinical practice.
Background Previous data from a recently conducted prospective, single blind randomized clinical trial among community dwelling older patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and anemia randomized to treatment with epoetin alfa (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, ESA) vs. placebo did not demonstrate significant benefits of therapy regarding left ventricular (LV) structure, functional capacity, or quality of life (QOL). However, several patients randomized to the treatment arm were non-responders with a suboptimal increase in hemoglobin. All patients in the trial also received oral ferrous gluconate, which could have contributed to increases in hemoglobin observed in those receiving placebo. Accordingly, we performed an analysis separating patients into responders vs. non-responders in order to determine if measured improvement in anemia would have any effect on clinical endpoints. Methods A total of 56 patients (age 77 ± 11 years, 68% female) were recruited who had anemia defined as a hemoglobin of ≤ 12 g/dL (average, 10.4 ± 1 g/dL) with HFPEF defined as having NHANES-CHF (National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey: Congestive Heart Failure) criteria score of ≥ 3 and an ejection fraction of > 40% (average EF = 63% ± 15%). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either ESA and ferrous gluconate or ferrous gluconate only. In this analysis, a responder was defined as a patient with an increase of 1 g/dL in the first 4 weeks of the trial. Results Nineteen subjects were classified as responders compared to 33 non-responders. While the average hemoglobin increased significantly at the end of 6 months for responders (1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 g/dL, P = 0.004), 50% of the subjects assigned to ESA were non-responders. Left ventricular function including ejection fraction (P = 0.32) and end diastolic volume (P = 0.59) was unchanged in responders compared to non-responders. Responders also showed no significant improvements in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, Six Minute Walk Test (6 MWT) and peak VO2. Though QOL improved significantly within each group, there was no difference between the two. Conclusions A significant hemoglobin response to anemia treatment with ESA and oral iron does not lead to differences in LV remodeling, functional status, or QOL. Additionally, a significant percent of older adults with HFPEF and anemia do not respond to ESA therapy. Given the results of this small trial, it appears as though using objective improvements in anemia as a marker in older adult subjects with HFPEF does not have significant clinical utility.
Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography represents one of the most exciting technological revolutions in cardiac imaging and it has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age and coronary plaque calcification on diagnostic accuracy of MDCT. Methods The patients were examined by using dual-source MDCT and conventional coronary angiography. MDCT results were analyzed with regard to the severity (> 50% stenosis) and morphology (non-calcified, mixed, or calcified) of coronary atherosclerotic plaques evaluated in a 16-segment model. Results In total, 181 patients (94 men and 87 women) with 2,687 coronary artery segments were examined with MDCT. Ninety three patients were older than 65 years of age (group A, 42 men) and 88 were younger (group B, 52 men). Two-hundred nine coronary artery segments (7.2%) were excluded because of small distal coronary vessel segments and/or motion artifacts. The overall number of segments with non-diagnostic image quality was similar in both groups of patients. Of the 2,687 evaluated segments, 157 (5.8%) were significantly diseased, and 144 of them were correctly detected by MDCT. Diagnostic evaluation showed that the sensitivity, positive predictive value, specificity, and negative predictive value were 89.5%, 62.5%, 96.0%, and 99.2%, respectively in group A, and 95.2%, 64.8%, 97.5%, and 99.8% in group B, respectively. In addition, detailed segment-based analyses in coronary segments with non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaques in both groups were similar diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions Very high diagnostic accuracy observed in this study suggests that MDCT coronary angiography could be a suitable diagnostic tool for not only younger patients but also for older patients.
Objectives To evaluate the prognostic value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 334 consecutive patients with SAP who underwent first PCI following multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) were enrolled from our institution between January 2007 and June 2012. The CAC score was calculated according to the standard Agatston calcium scoring algorithm. Complex PCI was defined as use of high pressure balloon, kissing balloon and/or rotablator. Procedure-related complications included dissection, occlusion, perforation, no/slow flow and emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Main adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as a combined end point of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization and rehospitalization for cardiac ischemic events. Results Patients with a CAC score > 300 (n = 145) had significantly higher PCI complexity (13.1% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.017) and rate of procedure-related complications (17.2% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.005) than patients with a CAC score ≤ 300 (n = 189). After a median follow-up of 22.5 months (4–72 months), patients with a CAC score ≤ 300 differ greatly than those patients with CAC score > 300 in cumulative non-events survival rates (88.9 vs. 79.0%, Log rank 4.577, P = 0.032). After adjusted for other factors, the risk of MACE was significantly higher [hazard ratio (HR): 4.3, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–8.2, P = 0.038] in patients with a CAC score > 300 compared to patients with a lower CAC score. Conclusions The CAC score is an independent predictor for MACE in SAP patients who underwent PCI and indicates complexity of PCI and procedure-related complications.
Objectives To address whether menopause affects outcome of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) by comparing the safety and long-term outcome of a single-procedure in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods A total of 743 female patients who underwent a single CA procedure of drug-refractory AF were retrospectively analyzed. The differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of CA for AF between the pre-menopausal women (PreM group, 94 patients, 12.7%) and the post-menopausal women (PostM group, 649 patients, 87.3%) were assessed. Results The patients in the PreM group were younger (P P P = 0.005) than those in the PostM group. The two groups were similar with regards to the proportion of concomitant mitral valve regurgitation coronary artery disease, left atrium dimensions, and left ventricular ejection fraction. The overall rate of complications related to AF ablation was similar in both groups (P = 0.385). After 43 (16–108) months of follow-up, the success rate of ablation was 54.3% in the PreM group and 54.2% in the PostM group (P = 0.842). The overall freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence was similar in both groups. Menopause was not found to be an independent predictive factor of the recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of single-procedure CA for AF are similar in pre- and post-menopausal women. Results indicated that CA of AF appears to be as safe and effective in pre-menopausal women as in post-menopausal women.
Objectives To assess the impact on stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes of prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 620 consecutive patients from January 2011 to December 2011 (75.6 ± 12.3 years, 355 males, 76.5% in Rutherford class 5–6), referred for critical limb ischemia and submitted to prolonged high-pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. The definition of prolonged high-pressure angioplasty includes dilation to at least 18 atm for at least 120 s. Procedural data, and clinical and instrumental follow-up were analyzed to assess stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes. Results The preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 433/620 patients (69.7%) and contralateral cross-over in 164/620 (26.4%) and popliteal retrograde + femoral antegrade in 23/620 (3.7%). Techniques included subintimal angioplasty in 427/620 patients (68.8%) and endoluminal angioplasty in 193/620 patients (31.2%). The prolonged high pressure balloon angioplasty procedure was successful in 86.2% (minor intra-procedural complications rate 15.7 %), stent implantation was performed in 74 patients (11.9%), with a significant improvement of ankle-brachial index (0.29 ± 0.6 vs. 0.88 ± 0.3, P vs. 0.7 ± 1.9, P Conclusions Prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions appears to be safe and effective allowing for an acceptable patency and restenosis rates on mid-term.
Background It is well-established that influenza vaccination reduces adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), however, the vaccine coverage rate in most countries remains low. The concern about the local adverse effects of intramuscular injection, particularly in CVD patients receiving antithrombotic therapy, is one of the important impediments. This study was conducted to assess the safety, side effects and tolerability of intradermal influenza vaccine in CVD patients. Methods This was an observational study in adult CVD patients who had undergone vaccination against seasonal influenza by intradermal vaccination between May 16 and May 30, 2012 at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. The medical history, patients’ acceptability and adverse effects were collected using a written questionnaire completed by the patient immediately following vaccination and by a telephone survey eight days later. Results Among 169 patients, 52.1% were women and the mean age was 63 ± 12 years. Coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy were present in 121 (71.6%), 40 (23.7%) and 8 (4.7%), respectively. Antithrombotics were used in 89.3%. After vaccination, the pain score was 0, 1 or 2 (out of 10) in 44.4%, 15.1%, and 27.6% of the patients, respectively. Eight days after vaccination, the common adverse reactions were itching 19 (11.9%), swelling 9 (5.7%) and fatigue (4.7%). No hematoma or bruising was reported. Conclusions The intradermal influenza vaccination is safe and well tolerated with high rates of satisfaction in cardiovascular disease patients. This technique should be useful in expanding influenza vaccine coverage.
Objective To investigate prognostic predictors of long-term survival of patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA), and to determine predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in CA patients. Methods We recruited 102 consecutive CA cases and followed these patients for 5 years. We described their clinical characteristics at presentation and used a new, high-sensitivity assay to determine the concentration of cTnT in plasma samples from these patients. Results The patients with poor prognosis showed older age (56 ± 12 years vs. 50 ± 15 years, P = 0.022), higher incidences of heart failure (36.92% vs. 16.22%, P = 0.041), pericardial effusion (60.00% vs. 35.14%, P = 0.023), greater thickness of interventricular septum (IVS) (15 ± 4 mm vs. 13 ± 4 mm, P = 0.034), higher level of hs-cTnT (0.186 ± 0.249 ng/mL vs. 0.044 ± 0.055 ng/mL, P = 0.001) and higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels (11,742 ± 10,464 pg/mL vs. 6,031 ± 7,458 pg/mL, P = 0.006). At multivariate Cox regression analysis, heart failure (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.09–2.92, P = 0.021), greater wall thickness of IVS (HR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.04–3.01, P = 0.0375) and higher hs-cTnT level (HR: 6.16, 95%CI: 2.20–17.24, P = 0.001) at enrolment emerged as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Conclusions We showed that hs-cTnT is associated with a very ominous prognosis, and it is also the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis. Examination of hs-cTnT concentrations provides valuable prognostic information concerning long-term outcomes.
Objective To clarify the association between rs1050450 polymorphism in Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by performing a meta-analysis of published studies. There is growing evidence from different study types for an association of the GPx-1 polymorphism and cardiovascular outcomes, but observational studies have so far shown inconsistent results. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PubMed, Embase database databases and the Cochrane Library. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of association under the best genetic model. Both Q statistic and the I2 were used to check heterogeneity. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explore heterogeneity source. Sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis analysis and publication bias were used to test the reliability of the results. Results Data were available from two cohort studies and 8 case-control studies involving 1,430 cases and 3,767 controls. The pooled ORs for overall CVD risk was 1.36 with 95% CI: 1.08–1.70 under a co-dominant model, and that for East Asian subgroup was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.39–2.43). Substantial heterogeneity for ORs were detected among all the included studies, mainly caused by ethnic differences between East Asian and non-East Asian populations. Although Egger’s regression test suggested no statistical significant publication bias, Begg’s funnel plot exhibited obvious asymmetry. The statistical significance disappeared after adjusting for potential publication bias in the overall studies. However, no substantial publication bias was found in the East Asian subgroup. Conclusions GPx-1 gene Pro198Leu and Pro197Leu polymorphisms considerably increased the risk of CVD in the East Asian population. Large-scale investigations are needed to confirm the results in different ethnicities.
Background Cilostazol is a type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor which has been previously demonstrated to prevent the occurrence of tachyarrhythmia and improve defibrillation efficacy. However, the mechanism for this beneficial effect is still unclear. Since cardiac mitochondria have been shown to play a crucial role in fatal cardiac arrhythmias and that oxidative stress is one of the main contributors to arrhythmia generation, we tested the effects of cilostazol on cardiac mitochondria under severe oxidative stress. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from rat hearts and treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress. Cilostazol, at various concentrations, was used to study its protective effects. Pharmacological interventions, including a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) blocker, cyclosporine A (CsA), and an inner membrane anion channel (IMAC) blocker, 4’-chlorodiazepam (CDP), were used to investigate the mechanistic role of cilostazol on cardiac mitochondria. Cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential change and mitochondrial swelling were determined as indicators of cardiac mitochondrial function. Results Cilostazol preserved cardiac mitochondrial function when exposed to oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial swelling, and decreasing ROS production. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cardioprotective effects of cilostazol reported previously could be due to its prevention of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by severe oxidative stress.
Objectives To establish a cost-effective and reproducible procedure for induction of chronic left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) in rabbits. Methods Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in 35 rabbits via concomitant ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the circumflex (Cx) branch at the middle portion. Development of AMI was confirmed by ST segment elevation and akinesis of the occluded area. Echocardiography, pathological evaluation, and agar intra-chamber casting were utilized to validate the formation of LVA four weeks after the surgery. Left ventricular end systolic pressure (LVESP) and diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured before, immediately after and four weeks after ligation. Dimensions of the ventricular chamber, thickness of the interventricular septum (IVS) and the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), systolic volume (LVESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were recorded by echocardiogram. Results Thirty one (88.6%) rabbits survived myocardial infarction and 26 of them developed aneurysm (83.9%). The mean area of aneurysm was 33.4% ± 2.4% of the left ventricle. LVEF markedly decreased after LVA formation, whereas LVEDV, LVESV and the thickness of IVS as well as the dimension of ventricular chamber from apex to mitral valve annulus significantly increased. LVESP immediately dropped after ligation and recovered to a small extent after LVA formation. LVEDP progressively increased after ligation till LVA formation. Areas in the LV that underwent fibrosis included the apex, anterior wall and lateral wall but not IVS. Agar intra-chamber cast showed that the bulging of LV wall was prominent in the area of aneurysm. Conclusions Ligation of LAD and Cx at the middle portion could induce development of LVA at a mean area ratio of 33.4% ± 2.4% which involves the apex, anterior wall and lateral wall of the left ventricle.
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is common in the elderly. Although surgical replacement of the valve has been the gold standard of management, many patients have been excluded from surgery because they were very old, frail, or had co-morbidities that increased operative risks. In the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a new treatment option suitable for these patients. This article reviews the available literature on the role of TAVI in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published studies showed that elderly individuals who underwent TAVI experienced better in-hospital recovery, and similar short and mid-term mortality compared to those underwent surgical treatment of AS. However, long-term outcomes of TAVI in elderly patients are still unknown. The available data in the literature on the effect of advanced age on clinical outcomes of TAVI are limited, but the data that are available suggest that TAVI is a beneficial and tolerable procedure in very old patients. Some of the expected complications after TAVI are reported more in the oldest patients such as vascular injures. Other complications were comparable in TAVI patients regardless of their age group. However, very old patients may need closer monitoring to avoid further morbidities and mortality.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by extensive, but potentially reversible, left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of an explanatory coronary obstruction. Thus, TCM is distinct from coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, substantial evidence for co-existing CAD in some TCM patients exist. Herein, we take this association one step further and present a case in which the patient simultaneously suffered from AMI and TCM, and in which we believe that a primary coronary event triggered TCM. An 88-year-old female presented with chest pain. Echocardiography revealed apical akinesia with hypercontractile bases. An occluded diagonal branch with suspected acute plaque rupture was identified on the angiogram, but could not explain the extent of akinesia. Cardiac function recovered completely. Thus, this patient adhered to current diagnostic criteria for TCM. TCM is a well-known complication for other conditions associated with somatic stress. It is therefore intuitive to assume that AMI, which also associates with somatic stress and elevated catecholamine, can cause TCM. Our case illustrates that TCM and AMI may occur simultaneously. Although causality cannot be conclusively inferred from this association, the somatic stress associated with AMI may have caused TCM in this patient.