2016 Vol. 13, No. 5
Objective To explore how older patients self-manage their coronary heart disease (CHD) after undergoing elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Methods This mixed methods study used a sequential, explanatory design and recruited a convenience sample of patients (n = 93) approximately three months after elective PTCA. The study was conducted in two phases. Quantitative data collected in Phase 1 by means of a self-administered survey were subject to univariate and bivariate analysis. Phase 1 findings informed the purposive sampling for Phase 2 where ten participants were selected from the original sample for an in-depth interview. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. This paper will primarily report the findings from a sub-group of older participants (n = 47) classified as 65 years of age or older. Results 78.7% (n = 37) of participants indicated that they would manage recurring angina symptoms by taking glyceryl trinitrate and 34% (n = 16) thought that resting would help. Regardless of the duration or severity of the symptoms 40.5% (n = 19) would call their general practitioner or an emergency ambulance for assistance during any recurrence of angina symptoms. Older participants weighed less (P = 0.02) and smoked less (P = 0.01) than their younger counterparts in the study. Age did not seem to affect PTCA patients’ likelihood of altering dietary factors such as fruit, vegetable and saturated fat consumption (P = 0.237). Conclusions The findings suggest that older people in the study were less likely to know how to correctly manage any recurring angina symptoms than their younger counterparts but they had fewer risk factors for CHD. Age was not a factor that influenced participants’ likelihood to alter lifestyle factors.
Background Little is known about the association between type D personality and self-care behaviors in heart failure (HF) patients. We examined the effect of type D personality on self-care behaviors and self-efficacy among Chinese HF patients. Methods A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was conducted. All participants completed the questionnaires of the self-care of heart failure index (V6) and type D personality scale. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from medical records and patient interviews. The methods used for data analysis included descriptive analysis, independent-sample t-test, χ2 test, and multiple linear regression. Results A total of 127 HF patients were included and 61.4% of them were male. The average age for this study sample was 64.9 ± 12.34 years. The majority of the participants were in a New York Heart Association class III or IV (87%), and the average length of living with HF was 38.24 ± 41.1 months. A total of 33.1% of the participants were identified as having type D personality. No significant differences were determined in the demographic and clinical variables between type D and non-type D patients, except for the mean age and the length of living with HF. Type D patients were younger and had a shorter time of living with HF than their non-type D counterparts. Multiple regression demonstrated significant associations between type D personality and self-care maintenance and self-efficacy after adjusting the demographic and clinical factors. However, type D personality was not significantly associated with self-care management behaviors. Conclusions Type D personality was negatively related to self-care maintenance and self-efficacy in Chinese HF patients. Future study is warranted to develop a tailored intervention to improve engagement in self-care behaviors in HF patients with type D personality.
Objectives To identify symptom clusters among patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the independent relationships with their quality of life (QoL). Methods This is the secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which interviewed 119 patients with advanced HF in the geriatric unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. The symptom profile and QoL were assessed by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the McGill QoL Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the symptom clusters. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the independent relationships with their QoL, after adjusting the effects of age, gender, and comorbidities. Results The patients were at an advanced age (82.9 ± 6.5 years). Three distinct symptom clusters were identified: they were the distress cluster (including shortness of breath, anxiety, and depression), the decondition cluster (fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, and reduced appetite), and the discomfort cluster (pain, and sense of generalized discomfort). These three symptom clusters accounted for 63.25% of variance of the patients’ symptom experience. The small to moderate correlations between these symptom clusters indicated that they were rather independent of one another. After adjusting the age, gender and comorbidities, the distress (beta = ?0.635, P P = 0.01), and the discomfort (beta = -0.258, P Conclusions This study identified the distinctive symptom clusters among patients with advanced HF. The results shed light on the need to develop palliative care interventions for optimizing the symptom control for this life-limiting disease.
Background Heart failure (HF) is a physically and socially debilitating disease that carries the burden of hospital re-admission and mortality. As an aging society, Hong Kong urgently needs to find ways to reduce the hospital readmission of HF patients. This study evaluates the effects of a nurse-led HF clinic on the hospital readmission and mortality rates among older HF patients in Hong Kong. Methods This study is a retrospective data analysis that compares HF patient in a nurse-led HF clinic in Hong Kong compared with HF patients who did not attend the clinic. The nurses of this clinic provide education on lifestyle modification and symptom monitoring, as well as titrate the medications and measure biochemical markers by following established protocols. This analysis used the socio-demographic and clinical data of HF patients who were aged ≥ 65 years old and stayed in the clinic over a six-month period. Results The data of a total of 78 HF patients were included in this data analysis. The mean age of the patients was 77.38 ± 6.80 years. Approximately half of the HF patients were male (51.3%), almost half were smokers (46.2%), and the majority received ≤ six years of formal education. Most of the HF patients (87.2%) belonged to classes II and III of the New York Heart Association Functional Classification, with a mean ejection fraction of 47.15 ± 20.31 mL. The HF patients who attended the clinic (n = 38, 75.13 ± 5.89 yrs) were significantly younger than those who did not attend the clinic (n = 40, 79.53 ± 6.96 yrs) (P = 0.04), and had lower recorded blood pressure. No other statistically significant difference existed between the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the two groups. The HF patients who did not attend the nurse-led HF clinic demonstrated a significantly higher risk of hospital readmission [odd ratio (OR): 7.40; P n = 4) than those who did not attend (n = 14). However, such a difference did not reach statistical significance when the effects of age and blood pressure were adjusted. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure [F (2, 94) = 3.39, P = 0.04] and diastolic blood pressure [F (2, 94) = 8.48, P Conclusions The finding of this study suggests the important role of nurse-led HF clinics in reducing healthcare burden and improving patient outcomes among HF patients in Hong Kong.
Objective To examine the quality of life and palliative care needs of elderly patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Methods This was a correlation descriptive study conducted at a 650-bed subacute hospital. Patients who were aged 65 or over, diagnosed with HF of New York Heart Association Class III or IV symptoms, and mentally sound were eligible to the study. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), the overall quality of life single item scale, and the McQill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQoL), were used for measurement. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors for predicting quality of life. Results A convenience sample of 112 patients was recruited. Their age was 81.5 ± 8.5 years. The three most distressing symptoms reported by the patients were tiredness (5.96 ± 2.78), drowsiness (5.47 ± 2.93), and shortness of breath (5.34 ± 2.96). Their mean overall quality of life single item scale score was 4.72 ± 2.06 out of 10. The mean MQoL physical subscale score was the lowest (4.20 ± 1.767), whereas their mean psychological subscale was the highest (7.14 ± 2.39). However, in a multivariate analysis model, quality of life was significantly associated with existential wellbeing, physical wellbeing, psychological wellbeing and educational level. Conclusions The findings highlight that spiritual concerns are significant palliative care needs among elderly patients with advanced HF, in addition to symptom management. This is in line with the argument that palliative care that places great emphasis on holistic care should be integrated to the care of this group of patients.
Heart failure (HF) is a potentially fatal disease that affects increasing number of people worldwide. Although heart transplant is the “gold standard” therapy for HF, due to the limited availability of organs, many patients died when waiting for the transplant. Left ventricular assist device (LVAD), as a mechanical circulatory support, has become a new light for patients with HF. With the technical advancements, LVADs work not only as a bridge to transplant, but also assist heart recovery and even as a destination therapy in long-term treatment. This observation paper reviewed the development of LVAD and its clinical roles. The challenges and possible solutions in nursing care for patients with LVAD at different stage of implantation were discussed. The healthcare professionals could obtain a better understanding about the LVAD treatment for HF patients.
Background Very elderly patients represent a distinct patient group in clinical setting in terms of a decision for trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) when one considers the potential improvement in the quality of life (QoL) on one hand and the benefit to risk ratio on the other. This study aimed to compare functional and QoL outcomes of TAVR between octogenarians and septuagenarians. Methods This prospective cohort study included 136 elderly patients (70 to 89 years of age), who underwent transfemoral TAVR due to degenerative aortic stenosis. Patients were allocated into one of the following age groups: septuagenarians (n = 67) and octogenarians (n = 69). Preoperative and early postoperative clinical parameters were recorded. In addition, QoL of the patients was evaluated using SF-36 questionnaire preoperatively and six month postoperatively. Results Groups were similar in terms of early postoperative mortality and morbidity parameters. The mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class improved after TAVR in both groups. In addition, all SF-36 norm-based scale and SF-36 summary scale scores improved significantly in both groups during the postoperative period. Postoperatively, physical functioning, general health and physical component summary scores were significantly better in the septuagenarian group (P = 0.02, 0.01, 0.03, respectively). Conclusion Although the improvement in the QoL in terms of physical health was more marked in septuagenarians than in octogenarians, substantial benefits on the quality of life and particularly on mental health seem to justify re-consideration of TAVR indications in the very elderly.
Objective To identify the factors associated with the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods A total of 81 patients with CAD who underwent CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, without postoperative atrial fibrillation (59 patients, 74.6% men, mean age 65.8 ± 4.0 years); Group 2, with early new-onset atrial fibrillation after CABG (22 patients, 90.9% men, mean age 67.7 ± 5.4 years). Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I were studied. Results During the observation period, atrial fibrillation occurred in 27.2% cases, an average of 4.9 ± 3.8 days after surgery. In group 2, the left atrium (LA) dimension was larger than in group 1 (43.9 ± 3.4 mm vs. 37.6 ± 3.9 mm, P P = 0.04), IL-8 (11.9 ± 6.0 pg/mL vs. 7.7 ± 5.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) and SOD (2462.0 ± 2029.3 units/g vs. 1515.0 ± 1292.9 units/g, P = 0.04) compared with group without POAF. The multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) for POAF development in patients with left atrium more than 39 mm was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2?3.8, P = 0.0004], IL-6 levels more than 65.18 pg/mL—1.4 (95% CI: 1.1?2.7, P = 0.009), IL-8 levels more than 9.67 pg/mL—1.2 (95% CI: 1.1?3.7, P = 0.009), SOD more than 2948 units/g—1.1 (95% CI: 1.01?2.9, P = 0.04). Conclusions In our study, the independent predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation after CABG in elderly patients were left atrium dimension and the increased postoperative concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and superoxide dismutase.
Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.
Background Resistance to anti-platelet therapy is detrimental to patients. Our aim was to establish a predictive model for aspirin resistance to identify high-risk patients and to propose appropriate intervention. Methods Elderly patients (n = 1130) with stable chronic coronary heart disease who were taking aspirin (75 mg) for > 2 months were included. Details of their basic characteristics, laboratory test results, and medications were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish a predictive model for aspirin resistance. Risk score was finally established according to coefficient B and type of variables in logistic regression. The Hosmer–Lemeshow (HL) test and receiver operating characteristic curves were performed to respectively test the calibration and discrimination of the model. Results Seven risk factors were included in our risk score. They were serum creatinine (> 110 ?mol/L, score of 1); fasting blood glucose (> 7.0 mmol/L, score of 1); hyperlipidemia (score of 1); number of coronary arteries (2 branches, score of 2; ≥ 3 branches, score of 4); body mass index (20–25 kg/m2, score of 2; > 25 kg/m2, score of 4); percutaneous coronary intervention (score of 2); and smoking (score of 3). The HL test showed P ≥ 0.05 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥ 0.70. Conclusions We explored and quantified the risk factors for aspirin resistance. Our predictive model showed good calibration and discriminative power and therefore a good foundation for the further study of patients undergoing anti-platelet therapy.
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the association between inflammation (as indexed by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) and endothelial function [as indexed by big endothelin-1 (ET-1)] in AF patients remains unclear. Methods We enrolled 128 patients with lone AF, among which 83 had paroxysmal AF, and 45 had persistent AF. Eighty-two age- and gender-matched controls of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia without AF history were evaluated. Plasma hs-CRP, big ET-1 levels and other clinical characteristics were compared among the groups. Results Patients with persistent AF had higher hs-CRP concentrations than those with paroxysmal AF (P P P > 0.05), and both groups had higher big ET-1 levels than controls (P P P r = 0.563, P r = 0.094, P Conclusions Both plasma hs-CRP and big ET-1 levels are elevated in lone AF patients, and are associated with AF. In paroxysmal lone AF patients, there were significant positive correlations between plasma hs-CRP level and big ET-1 level.