2016 Vol. 13, No. 8
Background The left atrial size has been considered as a useful marker of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, it is not well known whether left atrial area index (LAAI) has predictive value for prognosis in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). This study was aimed to assess the association between LAAI and outcomes in UAP patients. Methods We enrolled a total of 391 in-hospital patients diagnosed as UAP. Clinical and echocardiographic data at baseline were collected. The patients were followed for the development of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, including hospital readmission for angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke and all-cause mortality. Results During a mean follow-up time of 26.3 ± 8.6 months, 98 adverse CV events occurred (84 hospital readmission for angina pectoris, four AMI, four CHF, one stroke and five all-cause mortality). In a multivariate Cox model, LAAI [OR: 1.140, 95% CI: 1.016–1.279, P = 0.026], diastolic blood pressure (OR: 0.976, 95% CI: 0.956–0.996, P = 0.020) and pulse pressure (OR: 1.020, 95% CI: 1.007–1.034, P = 0.004) were independent predictors for adverse CV events in UAP patients. Conclusions LAAI is a predictor of adverse CV events independent of clinical and other echocardiographic parameters in UAP patients.
Objective To investigate whether admission time was associated with the delay of reperfusion therapy and in-hospital death in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods All patients with STEMI who were admitted to the emergency department and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention at Peking University People’s Hospital between April 2012 and March 2015 were included. We examined differences in clinical characteristics, total ischemic time, and in-hospital death between patients admitted during off-hours and those admitted during regular hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between off-hours admission and clinical outcome. Results The sample comprised 184 and 105 patients with STEMI admitted to hospital during off-hours and regular hours, respectively. Total ischemic and onset-to-door times were significantly shorter in patients admitted during off-hours than among those admitted during regular hours (all P Conclusions Off-hours admission did not result in delayed reperfusion therapy or increased in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI. Further efforts should focus on identifying pivotal factors associated with the pre-hospital and in-hospital delay of reperfusion therapy, and implementing quality improvement initiatives for reperfusion programs.
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) often coexist, however, the clinical characteristics and the impact of stable CAD on the outcomes in Chinese patients with AF has not been well understood. Methods Consecutive AF patients in 20 hospitals in China from November 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. The primary endpoints included 1-year all-cause mortality, stroke, non-central nervous system (non-CNS) embolism, and major bleeding. Results A total of 1947 AF patients were analyzed, of whom 40.5% had stable CAD. The mean CHADS2 scores in CAD patients was significantly higher than that of non-CAD patients (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, P vs. 10.7%, P P = 0.017) and incidence of stroke (9.0% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.030), while the non-CNS embolism and major bleeding rates were comparable between the two groups. After multivariate adjustment, stable CAD was independently associated with increased risk of 1-year all-cause mortality (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01?1 .80, P = 0.040), but not associated with stroke (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.72–1.58, P = 0.736). Conclusions Stable CAD was prevalent in Chinese AF patients and was independently associated with increased risk of 1-year all-cause mortality. Chinese AF patients with stable CAD received inadequate antithrombotic therapy and this grim status of antithrombotic therapy needed to be improved urgently.
Background Hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, affecting more than half the elderly population. It is essential to know if they have proper control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to identify the associated factors to masked uncontrolled hypertension and false uncontrolled hypertension in older patients. Methods Two-hundred seventy-three individuals (70.1 ± 6.7 years-old) had blood pressure (BP) measured at the office and by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), with the definition of controlled group (C), individuals with high office BP and adequate ABPM, called white-coat effect group (WCE), uncontrolled (UC), and subjects with appropriate office BP and elevated ABPM denominated masked effect group (ME). Age, body mass index, diabetes, pulse pressure (PP) and BP dipping during sleep were evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression models). Results Age was higher in UC than in C and ME (P P P = 0.03). Female gender was associated with a greater chance of being of ME group, which showed a higher PP and lower BP dipping during sleep. Conclusions In older individuals, office BP measurements did not allow the detection of associated factors that would permit to differentiate WCE from UC group and C from ME group. ABPM favored the identification of a higher PP and a lower BP dipping during sleep in the masked effect and uncontrolled groups.
Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after surgery for acute aortic dissection (AAD) and increases in-hospital and long-term mortality. However, few data exist on the clinical and prognostic relevance of early preoperative AKI in patients with type A AAD. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of preoperative AKI and the impact of AKI on in-hospital outcomes in patients with type A AAD. Methods From May 2009 to June 2014, we retrospectively enrolled 178 patients admitted to our hospital within 48 h from symptom onset and receiving open surgery for type A AAD. The patients were divided into no AKI and AKI groups and staged with AKI severity according to the KDIGO criteria before surgery. Results AKI occurred in 41 patients (23.0%). The incidence of in-hospital complications was significantly higher in patients with preoperative AKI compared to no AKI (41.5% vs. 9.5%, P vs. 0, P = 0.012), and it increased with AKI severity (Ptrend vs. 5.1%, P = 0.079). Multivariate analysis indicated that male gender, diastolic blood pressure on admission and bilateral renal artery involvement were independent predictors of preoperative AKI in patients with type A AAD. Conclusions Early AKI before surgery was common in patients with type A AAD, and was associated with increased in-hospital complications. Male gender, diastolic blood pressure on admission and bilateral renal artery involvement were major predictors for preoperative AKI.
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) progression. Although previous studies have demonstrated the association of lipid and lipoprotein ratios with CAD, no data are currently available concerning the relationship between lipid and lipoprotein ratios and the severity of new on-set CAD in diabetics. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of lipid and lipoprotein ratios in predicting the severity of CAD in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Methods A total of 380 consecutive T2DM patients with new on-set CAD were enrolled in the present study. Then, they were classified into the three groups according to Gensini score (GS) tertiles. The relationship between lipid and lipoprotein ratios currently used and the GS was investigated. Results Positive correlations of natural log-transformed GS (lnGS) with apolipoprotein B to apoA-I ratio (apoB/apoA-I), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to apoA-I ratio (non-HDL-C/apoA-I), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to apoA-I ratio (LDL-C/apoA-I) were found (r = 0.18, 0.13, 0.12, respectively, all P P = 0.003). Area under receivers operating characteristic curve of apoB/apoA-I was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.60–0.66, P = 0.001) for predicting high GS. The optimal cutoff value of apoB/apoA-I to predict high GS was 0.72 with the sensitivity of 61.2% and the specificity of 62.1%. Conclusions Lipid and lipoprotein ratios might be useful for predicting the severity of new on-set CAD in T2DM patients, and the apoB/apoA-I appeared as the most significant predictor in this population.
Background Although statins are well tolerated by most aged people, their potential carcinogenicity is considered as one of the biggest factors limiting the use of statins. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk of cancer in people aged over 60 years receiving statin therapy. Methods A comprehensive search for articles published up to December 2015 was performed, reviews of each randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of statin mono-therapy with placebo on the risk of cancer in people aged > 60 years were conducted and data abstracted. All the included studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratios (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random effects model. Results A total of 12 RCTs, involving 62,927 patients (31,517 in statin therapy group and 31,410 in control group), with a follow-up duration of 1.9–5.4 years, contributed to the analysis. The statin therapy did not affect the overall incidence of cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, P = 0.52); subgroup analyses showed that neither the variety nor the chemical properties of the statins accounted for the incidence of cancer in older people. Conclusions Our meta-analysis findings do not support a potential cancer risk of statin treatment in people over 60 years old. Further targeted researches with a longer follow-up duration are warranted to confirm this issue.
Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased.
Background Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is expressed in the heart under inflammatory conditions and plays an important role in atherogenesis. Patients with increased PTX3 levels may suffer from higher rates of cardiac events. Regulation of specific genes by promoter methylation is important in atherogenesis. The factors influencing PTX3 levels and the association between epigenetics and PTX3 levels have not been investigated. Methods Blood samples were collected from 64 patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology, 35 who had coronary artery disease (CAD), and 29 who were CAD-free. Plasma levels of PTX3 were measured by ELISA. PTX3 promoter methylation was evaluated via methyl-specific PCR. The severity of coronary artery lesion was evaluated by angiography. Results The level of PTX3 promoter methylation in the CAD group was 62.69% ± 20.57%, significantly lower than that of the CAD-free group, which was 72.45% ± 11.84% (P = 0.03). Lower PTX3 promoter methylation levels in the CAD group were associated with higher plasma PTX3 concentrations (r = -0.29, P = 0.02). Furthermore, lower PTX3 promoter methylation levels were associated with higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in men (r = -0.58, P = 0.002). Conclusions The present study provides new evidence that methylation of the PTX3 promoter is associated with PTX3 plasma levels and NLR in coronary artery disease. This study also shows that modification of epigenetics by chronic inflammation might be a significant molecular mechanism in the atherosclerotic processes that influence plasma PTX3 concentrations.
Atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are common disorders associated with maleficent thrombotic events, particularly in the elderly patients. Polypharmacy, co-morbidities, and altered pharmacokinetics, often present in these patients, render the use of anticoagulants quite challenging. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have recently emerged as alternatives to Vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs) and are gradually increasing their popularity mainly because of their fewer drug and food interactions and ease of use. Their effectiveness and safety has been well-established in the general population but the balance between benefit and harm in the elderly is still unclear. Routine use in these patients is uncommon. Accumulating data have shown that the benefit of NOACs is consistent among all age groups, featuring equal or greater efficacy in preventing thrombotic events. Excess bleedings were lower with NOACs in comparison to VKAs, but bleeding patterns were disparate among them and head to head comparison is not available. The present review highlights on the efficacy and safety of novel anticoagulants in the elderly population.