ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

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2017 Vol. 14, No. 5

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Elevated IL-37 levels in the plasma of patients with severe coronary artery calcification
Meng CHAI, Hai-Tao ZHANG, Yu-Jie ZHOU, Qing-Wei JI, Qing YANG, Yu-Yang LIU, Ying-Xin ZHAO, Dong-Mei SHI, Wei LIU, Li-Xia YANG, Lin-Lin ZHANG, Jing LIANG
2017, 14(5): 285-291. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.013
Background Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a predictor of cardiovascular events and plaque burden and is closely associated with chronic inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-37 is a newly discovered member of the IL-1 family and is considered an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Our recent study on mice indicated that IL-37 could attenuate atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, which suggests that IL-37 could be associated with the development of atherosclerosis and related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL-37 plays a role in the progression of CAC in patients. Methods Two hundred participants with suspected cardiovascular disease were recruited. The levels of plasma IL-37, osteoprotegerin (OPG), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) together with other biochemical parameters were measured, and a coronary calcium assessment was carried out by multi-detector row CT. A score of 400 AU denotes severe CAC. Results Our initial data showed that there were no apparent differences in plasma IL-37 levels among patients with or without mild or moderate CAC. However, IL-37 levels were significantly increased in patients with severe CAC (P r = 0.360, P Conclusions This study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-37 is associated with high coronary calcium levels, suggesting that IL-37 expression may be caused by the activation of inflammation and that IL-37 might become a predictor of severe CAC in the future, which requires further investigation.
Expression of p53 in myocardium following coronary microembolization in rats and its significance
Yu-Han SUN, Qiang SU, Lang LI, Xian-Tao WANG, Yuan-Xi LU, Jia-Bao LIANG
2017, 14(5): 292-300. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.007
Background Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a primary cause for coronary microembolization (CME)-induced cardiac dysfunction. p53 induces cell growth retardation and apoptosis through stress pathway. The present study investigated the mechanism of p53-induced myocardial apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction by activating the mitochondrion apoptotic pathway following CME. Methods Forty SD rats were equally divided into microembolization (CME), sham operation (sham), CME+siRNA-p53, and CME+control-p53 groups. The CME rat model was established by injecting microembolization spheres via the left ventricle. Cardiac ultrasound, TUNEL, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and Western blot were used to assess the cardiac function indicators, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the expressions of mRNA and protein in myocardial tissues, respectively. Results Echocardiography revealed a significantly reduced cardiac function of the CME group than the sham group while the CME-induced cardiac dysfunction was improved in the CME+siRNA-p53 group. The indicators of myocardial apoptosis in the CME group increased significantly than the sham group; those of the CME+siRNA-p53 group decreased significantly than the CME group. Fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot demonstrated that p53, Bbc3 (PUMA), and cleaved caspase-3 expressions were significantly increased, and BCL-2 expression was declined in myocardial tissues of the CME group compared to the sham group. A contrasting result was observed in the CME+siRNA-p53 group as compared to the CME group. Conclusions P53 is involved in the CME-induced cardiac dysfunction, which may up-regulate Bbc3 to activate BCL-2/caspase3 mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and induce myocardial apoptosis. Inhibiting the p53 expression can effectively suppress this pathway, thereby reducing myocardial apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction.
Definition of a plant-based diet and overview of this special issue
Robert J Ostfeld
2017, 14(5): 315-315. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.008
Introduction to the “A Plant-based diet and cardiovascular disease” special issue
Kim Allan Williams
2017, 14(5): 316-316. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.001
A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
2017, 14(5): 342-354. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.009
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Evidence from observational and interventional studies demonstrates the benefits of plant-based diets in treating type 2 diabetes and reducing key diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications. Optimal macronutrient ratios for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes are controversial; the focus should instead be on eating patterns and actual foods. However, the evidence does suggest that the type and source of carbohydrate (unrefined versus refined), fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated versus saturated and trans), and protein (plant versus animal) play a major role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron.
A plant-based diet and stroke
Thomas Campbell
2017, 14(5): 321-326. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.010
A plant based diet and animal protein: questioning dietary fat and considering animal protein as the main cause of heart disease
Thomas Colin Campbell
2017, 14(5): 331-337. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.011
A plant-based diet for overweight and obesity prevention and treatment
Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Trisha Mandes, Anthony Crimarco
2017, 14(5): 369-374. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.002
The goal of this paper is to review the evidence related to the effect of plant-based dietary patterns on obesity and weight loss, including both observational and intervention trials. Literature from plant-based diet (PBD) epidemiological and clinical trial research was used to inform this review. In addition, data on dietary quality, adherence, and acceptability were evaluated and are presented. Both clinical trials and observational research indicate an advantage to adoption of PBDs for preventing overweight and obesity and promoting weight loss. PBDs may also confer higher levels of diet quality than are observed with other therapeutic diet approaches, with similar levels of adherence and acceptability. Future studies should utilize health behavior theory to inform intervention development and delivery of PBD studies and new technologies to bring interventions to scale for greater public health impact. Research examining PBDs and weight loss is also needed with more diverse populations, including older adults. Based on the available evidence, PBDs should be considered a viable option for the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.
A plant-based diet and heart failure: case report and literature review
Evan Y Choi, Kathleen Allen, Michael McDonnough, Daniele Massera, Robert J Ostfeld
2017, 14(5): 375-378. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.003
A plant-based diet and coronary artery disease: a mandate for effective therapy
Caldwell B Esselstyn
2017, 14(5): 317-320. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.004
A plant-based diet and hypertension
Sarah Alexander, Robert J Ostfeld, Kathleen Allen, Kim A Williams
2017, 14(5): 327-330. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.014
Strategies for practitioners to support patients in plant-based eating
Micaela C Karlsen, Kathryn J Pollard
2017, 14(5): 338-341. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.006
Plant-based nutrition for healthcare professionals: implementing diet as a primary modality in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease
Julieanna Hever, Raymond J Cronise
2017, 14(5): 355-368. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.012
Cardiovascular disease remains the world’s leading cause of death. Yet, we have known for decades that the vast majority of atherosclerosis and its subsequent morbidity and mortality are influenced predominantly by diet. This paper will describe a health-promoting whole food, plant-based diet; delineate macro- and micro-nutrition, emphasizing specific geriatric concerns; and offer guidance to physicians and other healthcare practitioners to support patients in successfully utilizing nutrition to improve their health.
Xinfuli Granule improves post-myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling and myocardial fibrosis in rats by regulating TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway
Jie MA, Zhi-Yuan LI, Xiao-Peng LIANG, Cai-Xia GUO, Pei-Pei LU, Li-Hong MA
2017, 14(5): 301-307. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.005
Background Recent clinical and experimental studies have confirmed the effects of Xinfuli Granule (XG), a compound Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of heart failure (HF). This study aimed to investigate the effects and the mechanisms of XG on ventricular reconstruction in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending branch ligation. The rats that survived 24 h were randomly assigned to 5 groups: medium-dose of XG group (MI+XGM), high-dose of XG group (MI+XGH), carvedilol group (MI+C), medium-dose of XG + carvedilol group (MI+C+XGM). Fourteen rats underwent identical surgical procedures without artery ligation, serving as sham controls. At 28 days, left ventricular weight to body weight (LVW/BW) and heart weight to body weight (HW/BW) were calculated; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular shortening fraction (LVFS), left ventricular internal diameter at systole (LVIDS) were measured by ultrasound; HE staining, Masson staining, and Sirius red staining were used to assess the myocardial pathological and physiological changes as well as myocardial fibrosis area and non-infarct zone I/III collagen ratio. Expression of Smad3 were detected and analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. P-Smad3, Smad2 and Smad7 in the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway were also analyzed by Western blot. Results The LVIDS (P P P P P P Conclusion XG can improve ventricular reconstruction and inhibit myocardial fibrosis in rats with AMI by regulating TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway.
Clinical characteristics, target organ damage and associate risk factors of resistant hypertension determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients aged ≥ 80 years
Zhi-Ru LIANG, Ling-Gen GAO, Jian CAO, Hua CUI, Li FAN, De-Wei GAO
2017, 14(5): 308-314. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.015
Objectives To investigate clinical characteristics, target organ damage, and the associated risk factors of the patients aged ≥ 80 years with true resistant hypertension (RH). Methods Patients aged ≥ 80 years with hypertension (n = 1163) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an evaluation of RH was carried out. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and target organ damage of patients with RH were assessed. The associated clinical risk factors were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results The prevalence of RH diagnosis by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring assessment was 21.15%. End-diastolic left ven?tricular internal dimension, left ventricular mass index as well as prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy were significantly greater in pa?tients with RH than in control group. The common carotid artery intimal media thickness, carotid walls thickness, common carotid artery diameter and relative wall thickness were significant greater in RH group than in control. A relatively higher level of creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria and retinal changes was found in RH group than in control. A multivariate analysis showed that patients with a history of diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles were independent risk factors of RH. Conclusions The prevalence of RH in patients aged ≥ 80 years was within the range of reported rates of the general population. Subjects with RH diagnosis showed a higher occurrence of target organ damage than patients with well controlled blood pressure. Patients with diabetes, higher BMI and serum lipid profiles were independent risk factors for RH in patients aged ≥ 80 years.