2018 Vol. 15, No. 11
Objective To evaluate short- and long-term changes in quality of life (QoL) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and to assess differences in patient QoL when using the TAVI transaortic (TAVI TAo) approach compared with the transfemoral approach (TAVI TF) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Methods Ninety-seven patients were assessed. Thirty-two patients underwent TAVI TAo, 31 underwent TAVI TF and 34 patients underwent SAVR. QoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire at baseline, after one month and one year. Results Mean patient age was 80 years (range, 61–92 years) and the mean logistic EuroSCORE was 12.45% (range, 1.39%?78.98%). Declared health state at baseline was significantly lower in TAVI TF (P P = 0.99). After one year, SAVR patient results of the EQ-5D-3L index value were lower in comparison to both TAVI patient groups (P P P P Conclusions A significant improvement in QoL was observed in all three patient groups. Regardless of the TAVI approach, EQ-5D-3L and VAS values were significantly increased after one-month and one-year follow up; the SAVR patients however, reported lower health status when compared to the TAVI patients.
Objective To investigate whether invasive strategy was associated with lower mortality in Chinese patients ? 80 years with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods We used retrospective data from our center between 2013 and 2017. During a median of 17.4 (interquartile range: 7.3–32.3) months follow-up, 120 deaths were recorded among 514 consecutive patients ? 80 years with AMI. The patients were divided into two groups: invasive treatment group (IT group, n = 269) and conservative treatment group (CT group, n = 245), which were also then compared with propensity score matching. Results High mortality was found in CT group compared with that in the IT one. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that invasive treatment was associated with lower mortality of patients ? 80 years. Moreover, the results revealed that the patients in IT group had lower in-hospital mortality (3.35% vs. 9.39%, P = 0.005). Besides, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the mortality was significantly lower in IT group compared with that in CT group using entire and propensity-matched cohort analysis (P Conclusions Our data suggested that IT appeared to be associated with lower mortality in Chinese patients ? 80 years with AMI, which consists with previous studies in spite of either ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) patients.
Background Frailty is a condition of elderly characterized by increased vulnerability to stressful events with high risk of adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between frailty and adverse outcomes including death and hospitalization due to heart failure in elderly patients. Methods We included patients aged ≥ 65 years with the diagnosis of heart failure. The clinical and laboratory data, echocardiography and ECGs were recorded. Additionally, the frailty scores of the patients were evaluated according to Canadian Study of Health and Aging. All the patients were divided as frail or non-frail. The groups were compared for their characteristics and the occurrence of clinical outcomes. Results We included 86 eligible patients. The median follow-up time was four months. The mean age was 75 ± 6.5 years. Of these 86 patients, 17 (19.7%) patients encountered an event (death and/or hospitalization). Nine patients (10.4%) died during follow-up. Thirty patients (34.9%) were considered frail. Among the demographic, clinical and laboratory data, only total protein and albumin levels were found to be lower in frail patients (total protein level: 6.8 ± 0.6 g/dL in non-frails, 6.5 ± 0.9 g/dL in frails, P = 0.05; albumin level: 3.8 ± 0.4 g/dL in non-frails, 3.4 ± 0.6 g/dL in frails, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, frailty was found to be strongly associated with clinical outcomes in short term. Conclusions Being frail in an elderly heart failure patient is associated with death and/or hospitalization due to heart failure in short term. Therefore, frailty score should be evaluated for all elderly heart failure patients as a prognostic marker.
Background The latest studies presented at the American Heart Association (AHA) meeting on heart failure and the update of the European Cardiology Society’s (ECS) recommendations on heart failure in 2016 recommend intravenous iron supplementation in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency for improves walking performance and quality of life, and reduces morbidity. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of iron deficiency in heart failure patients aged 75 years or older, as there is currently no data on these patients. Methods We performed an observational study on hospitalized patients in Geriatric Cardiology Department. Among the 462 patients hospitalized during eight months, 176 were eligible for inclusion; 22 patients was significant interference with an inflammatory syndrome (high ferritin with high C-reactive protein), and for 13 patients iron-related data were not available. For each patient included, a complete iron assessment and type of heart failure was available. Results A total of 141 patients were included, the mean age was 88 years (range: 75–101), and there were 52 (36.9%) of patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF), 37 (26.2%) with mid-range EF, and 52 (36.9%) with preserved EF. Irrespective of heart failure type, 73.8% had iron deficiency (95% CI: 65.7%–80.8%); this was found in 57.7% (95% CI: 43.2%–71.3%) of those with reduced EF, 78.4% (95% CI: 61.8%–90.2%) of those with mid-range EF, and 86.5% (95% CI: 74.2%–94.4%) of those with preserved EF (P = 0.003). Conclusion The prevalence of iron deficiency was very high in very elderly patients with heart failure, especially those with HF with mid-range EF or HF with preserved EF.
Objective To study the coronary microvascular function in older patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) using an invasive pressure–temperature sensor guidewire. Methods Patients undergoing echocardiography and cardiac catheterization examinations for exertional dyspnea and a positive stress test were retrospectively enrolled from January 2014 to November 2017, and were allocated into the control group or HFpEF group. The HFpEF group was secondary divided into two groups according to the age of 65 years. Comparing the clinical features and values obtained in examinations between the three groups, multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the predictors of left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Results There were 87 patients enrolled in this study. The older HFpEF patients (n = 32) were more likely to be female; and had the most comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and had a similar hypertensive prevalence as the adult HFpEF group (n = 24), whose mean LVEDP and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) were highest in comparison to the adult HFpEF patients and controls (n = 31). The coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the older HFpEF and adult HFpEF groups was similarly reduced. In the regression analysis, the IMR linearly correlated to LVEDP, and was the only independent predictor of LVEDP. Conclusions An increased IMR and reduced CFR were characteristics of microvascular dysfunction in older HFpEF patients. The IMR independently had a positive linear correlation with LVEDP. Microvascular rarefaction might be a subsequent pathological progression in the development of HFpEF.
Objective To explore the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN) on blood pressure with the appropriate dosage of phenol/ethanol solution in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methods RDN was performed on the bilateral renal artery. Forty SHRs were divided into four groups according on the dosage of phenol (10% phenol in absolute ethanol): sham group, 0.5 mL phenol group, 1 mL phenol group and 1.5 mL phenol group (n = 10 in each group). Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Plasma creatinine was determined four weeks after the treatment. The kidneys and renal arteries were collected and processed for histological examination. Results A sustained decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was only observed after the application of 1 mL phenol for four weeks, while SBP was lowered during the first week after RDN and increased in the following three weeks in the 0.5 mL and 1.5 mL phenol groups compared with the sham group. Renal norepinephrine (NE) was significantly decreased four weeks after RDN in the 1 mL and 1.5 mL phenol group compared with the sham group, but not in the 0.5 ml group. RDN with 1 mL phenol obviously reduced glomerular fibrosis. Histopathological analysis showed that tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was lower in the 1 mL and 1.5 mL phenol groups compared with the sham group. Moderate renal artery damage occurred in the 1.5 mL phenol group. Conclusion Chemical denervation with 1 ml phenol (10% phenol in absolute ethanol) effectively and safely damaged peripheral renal sympathetic nerves and contributed to the sustained reduction of blood pressure in SHRs.