2018 Vol. 15, No. 6
Background Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been performed for many elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). The SAPIEN 3 is one of the latest balloon-expandable prosthesis. This study aimed to investigate the early clinical outcomes after TAVR using the SAPIEN 3 in nonagenarians. Methods A total of 97 consecutive patients underwent TAVR for severe AS between December 2015 and December 2016. Of these, 85 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR using the SAPIEN 3 were included. According to the age, patients were classified into age ≥ 90 years group (17 patients) or age Results The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score in age ≥ 90 years group was higher than age vs. 8.5 ± 5.1%, P vs. 1.5%, P = 0.04 and 11.8% vs. 1.5%, P= 0.04, respectively). The composite endpoint of early safety at 30 days was similar between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prior myocardial infarction was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint of early safety (odds ratio: 4.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.02–22.21, P = 0.047). Conclusions The early mortality and safety after TAVR using the SAPIEN 3 in nonagenarians were similar and acceptable despite of higher operative risk.
Background The influence of gender on clinical outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was considerably discrepant in previous studies. We aimed to investigate the impact of gender in our registry. Methods The study is a retrospective observational analysis of a prospectively designed cohort (546 consecutive patients treated at the University Hospital Zurich who were enrolled in Swiss TAVI Cohort from May 2008 to April 2014). The Study took place in University Heart Centre at University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. Results Both genders were equally represented with 51.5 % (n= 281) of the populations being females, who were significantly older and had a more pronounced history of hypertension (P P = 0.004), coronary artery disease (P P P= 0.018). Patients were followed up for a median of 391 days with a 100% complete follow-up at one year. The primary outcome (all-cause mortality) occurred in 6.8% (n = 37) and 15% (n = 82) of patients at 30 days and one year, respectively. The 30-day all-cause mortality outcome did not significantly differ between females (7.5%) and males (6.0%) (P = 0.619), but one year all-cause mortality occurred significantly more in males than in females (18.7% vs. 11.7%,P Conclusions After TAVI implantation for severe aortic stenosis, males have a less favorable long-term (one year) mortality outcome than females.
Background Haloperidol is the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic for delirium symptoms. The risk of QTc prolongation often raises concerns, although the effect of haloperidol on QTc interval has not yet been investigated in a randomised placebo-controlled fixed-dose study. Methods A subanalysis of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prophylactic haloperidol 1 mg or placebo 1 mg orally twice-daily (maximum of 14 doses) on QTc interval in patients aged 70 years and over. Bedside, 12-lead ECGs were recorded before, during and after the one-week intervention period. Automatic QTc measurements were obtained in addition to manual measurements of QT and RR intervals, blinded for treatment status. Manual measurements were corrected (QTc) using Bazett (QTc-B), Framingham (QTc-Fa), Fridericia (QTc-Fi) and Hodges (QTc-H) methods. Mixed model analyses were used to test for differences in longitudinal course of QTc between patients receiving haloperidol and placebo. Results ECG recordings of 72 patients (haloperidol n = 38) were analysed, 45.8% male. Median (range) haloperidol serum concentration on day 4 was 0.71 (0.32–1.82) μg/L (n = 23). Longitudinal course of mean QTc did not significantly differ between treatment arms for any of the automatic or manually derived QTc values. Conclusions Low dose oral haloperidol did not result in QTc prolongation in older acutely hospitalised patients. Results may not be generalizable to patients with existing ECG abnormalities such as atrial fibrillation.
Objective To evaluate the predictive value of red cell distribution width (RDW) on left atrial thrombus (LAT) or left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods We reviewed 692 patients who were diagnosed as non-valvular AF and underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute from April 2014 to December 2015. The baseline clinical characteristics, laboratory test of blood routine, electrocardiograph measurements were analyzed. Results Eighty-four patients were examined with LAT/LASEC under TEE. The mean RDW level was significantly higher in LAT/LASEC patients compared with the non-LAT/LASEC patients (13.59% ± 1.07% vs. 14.34% ± 1.34%; P 13.16% could be an independent risk factor for LAT/LASEC in patients with AF. Conclusion Elevated RDW level is associated with the presence of LAT/LASEC and could be with moderate predictive value for LAT/LASEC in patients with non-valvular AF.
Background Influenza vaccination has been clinically shown to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but the economic perspectives can provide important data to make informed decisions. This study aimed to perform the economic evaluation of lifelong annual influenza vaccination for cardiovascular events and well-established pneumonia prevention. Methods Lifetime costs, life-expectancy, and quality-adjusted live years (QALYs) were estimated beyond one-year cycle length of a six-health states Markov model condition on whether a hospitalization for ACS, stroke, heart failure, pneumonia, no hospitalizations occurred, or death. The comparison of three age-groups of 40-49, 50-65, and > 65 years scenario was performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB) were presented as a societal perspective in 2016. The model robustness was determined by one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results The influenza vaccination was cost-effective in all age-groups, by dominant ICERs (lower cost with higher effectiveness) which was completely lower than acceptable willingness-to-pay threshold of Thailand [160,000 THB (4,466.8 USD) per QALYs], with a great incremental value of NMB. Especially, the 50-year-old-and- above scenario was shown as the most benefit at 129,092 THB (3,603.9 USD) for each patient. Conclusions The annually additional influenza vaccination to standard treatment in ACS was cost-effective in all age-groups, which should be considered in clinical practice and health-policy making process.
Background Older adults are prone to obesity and metabolic abnormalities and recommended to pursue a normal weight especially when obesity and metabolic abnormalities are co-existed. However, few studies have reported the possible differences in the effect of obesity on outcomes between older adults with metabolic abnormalities and those without metabolic abnormalities. Methods A total of 3485 older men were included from 2000 to 2014. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were obtained during a mean follow-up of five years. Metabolic abnormalities were defined as having established hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and taking the disease-related medications. All participants were stratified by the presence or absence of metabolic abnormalities. Results In the non-metabolic abnormalities group, all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were lowest in overweight participants and highest in obese participants. In the metabolic abnormalities group, mortality was also lowest in overweight participants but highest in participants with normal weight. After adjustment for covariates, hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause death and cardiovascular death were 0.68 (0.51, 0.92) and 0.59 (0.37, 0.93), respectively, in overweight participants with metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, obesity was not associated with mortality risk in both groups. These findings were unchanged in stratified analyses. Conclusions Overweight was negatively associated with mortality risk in older men with metabolic abnormalities but not in those without metabolic abnormalities. Obesity did not increase death risk regardless of metabolic abnormalities. These findings suggest that the recommendation of pursuing a normal weight may be wrong in overweight/obese older men, especially for those with metabolic abnormalities.
Objective To summarize clinical characteristics and treatment strategy of Chinese elderly mitral regurgitation (MR) inpatients under the current guidelines, and to identify factors related to treatment options in them. Methods A single center retrospective study was conducted in which patients hospitalized in Fuwai hospital from May 1st of 2014 to April 30 of 2015 with moderate to severe MR assessed by transthoracic echocardiography were enrolled consecutively (n = 1741). Patients > 60 years old were grouped as elderly group (n = 680) and patients n = 1061). The elderly group was categorized into two subgroups based on surgical status. Results The mean age of the elderly group was 66.98 ± 5.94 years. The most common reason of MR in elderly group was degenerative MR (41.18%). Atherosclerotic risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidaemia were more commonly observed in elderly group than the control group (45.44% vs. 25.17%, P vs. 8.48%, Pvs. 19.51%, P vs. 3.15 ± 1.66), greater left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) (57.72 ± 12.3 vs. 57.33 ± 10.19 mm) and a lower surgery rate (54.71% vs. 63.91%); P Conclusions Valve surgery was denied in 45.29% of elderly MR inpatients. Older age, impaired LVEF, lower regurgitation grade, EuroScore-II high risk stratification, and having diabetes were factors most significantly associated with surgery denial among elderly Chinese inpatients with MR.
Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism which can lead to premature coronary heart disease (pCHD). There are about 3.8 million potential FH patients in China, whereas the clinical and genetic data of FH are limited. Methods Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria was used to diagnose FH in outpatients with hypercholesterolemia. Resequencing chip analysis combined with Sanger sequencing validation were used to identify mutations in the definite FH patients according to DLCN criteria. In silico analysis was conducted in mutations with previously unknown pathogenicity. Then, the novel mutant receptors were transfected into human embryo kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. The binding and the internalization activities of the mutant receptors were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results The prevalence of definite FH in outpatients with hypercholesterolemia in this study is 3.2%. Using genetic testing, one homozygous FH (HoFH), one heterozygous FH (HeFH) and three compound heterozygous FH patients were confirmed. Eight mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene were identified, in which c.357delG was a novel mutation and co-segregated with the FH phenotype. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed that c.357delG was a pathogenic mutation. Furthermore, when compared with the wild-type LDLRs by flow cytometry analysis, the binding and internalization activities of c.357delG mutant LDLRs were reduced by 35% and 49%, respectively. Conclusions This study identified eight LDLR gene mutations in five patients with definite FH, in which c.357delG is a novel pathogenic mutation. These findings increase our understanding of the genetic spectrum of FH in China.
Objective To evaluate the trend of change in the efficacy and safety of catheter ablation compared with antiarrhythmic drug therapy (ADT) for rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) over time. Methods The online databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies. STATA software (version 12.0) was used to perform the meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results Fifteen randomized controlled trials including 2249 patients with AF were identified. The pooled results showed that catheter ablation was associated with a 52% reduction in the risk of AF recurrence compared with ADT [risk ratio (RR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.57, I2 = 70.7%). Subgroup analyses showed that catheter ablation exhibited less efficacy in studies after 2011 compared to studies before 2011 (RR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.54-0.68, I2 = 9.3% and RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.47, I2 = 69.9%, respectively), and the safety outcome showed a 1.08-fold higher incidence of adverse events (14.2% vs. 7.3%; RR =1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.13) in studies after 2011. Conclusions Catheter ablation appears to be superior to ADT for rhythm control. However, less efficacy and a higher rate of adverse events were observed in studies after 2011 compared to studies before 2011.
Chronic heart failure and depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence in the elderly. Several studies have shown how depression tends to exacerbate coexisting chronic heart failure and its clinical outcomes and vice versa, especially in the elderly. The negative synergism between chronic heart failure and depression in the elderly may be approached only taking into account the multifaceted pathophysiological characteristics underlying both these conditions, such as behavioural factors, neurohormonal activation, inflammatory mediators, hypercoagulability and vascular damage. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between these two conditions is not well established yet. Despite the high prevalence of depression in chronic heart failure elderly patients and its negative prognostic value, it is often unrecognized especially because of shared symptoms. So the screening of mood disorders, using reliable questionnaires, is recommended in elderly patients with chronic heart failure, even if cannot substitute a diagnostic interview by mental health professionals. In this setting, treatment of depression requires a multidisciplinary approach including: psychotherapy, antidepressants, exercise training and electroconvulsive therapy. Pharmacological therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, despite conflicting results, improves quality of life but does not guarantee better outcomes. Exercise training is effective in improving quality of life and prognosis but at the same time cardiac rehabilitation services are vastly underutilized.