2019 Vol. 16, No. 3
Objectives To investigate the rate of anticoagulant use, the reasons for not prescribing anticoagulant, and the factors associated with non-prescription of anticoagulant in older Thai adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods A multicenter registry of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation was conducted during 2014 to 2017 in Thailand. Demographic, medical history, antithrombotic medication, non-antithrombotic medication, and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Data were compared between the older adult (≥ 65 years) and younger adult (Results A total of 3218 patients (1873 males) with an average age of 67.3 ± 11.3 years were included. Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of patients were in the older adult group. Anticoagulant was prescribed in 2422 patients (75.3%): 81.4% in the older adult group and 65.7% in the younger adult group. The three main reasons for not prescribing anticoagulant were already taking antiplatelets, patient refusal, and bleeding risk. These reasons were more common in older adults as compared to younger adults. Multivariate analysis revealed current use of antiplatelets to be the most important factor that predict the non-prescription of anticoagulant in older population. Conclusions The prevalence of anticoagulant prescription among older Thai adults with atrial fibrillation is 81.4%. Taking antiplatelet drugs was found to be the strongest reason that predicts the non-prescription of anticoagulant in this patient population. A guideline should be developed to optimize the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet in older adults.
Background Whether cardiac resynchronization therapy super-responders (CRT-SRs) still have indications for neuro-hormonal antagonists or not remains uninvestigated. Methods We reviewed clinical data from 376 patients who underwent CRT implantation in Fuwai Hospital from 2009 to 2015 and followed up to 2017. CRT-SRs were defined by an improvement of the New York Heart Association functional class and left ventricular ejection fraction to ≥ 50% in absolute values at 6-month follow-up. All CRT-SRs were assigned into two groups on the basis of whether persistently receiving neuro-hormonal antagonists (NHA) (defined as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers) after 6-month follow-up and then we compared long-term outcome. Results A total of 60 patients met criteria for super-response. One of thirteen (7.7%) CRT-SRs without NHA had all-cause death, which also occurred in 2 of 47 (4.3%) in CRT-SRs with NHA (P = 0.526). However, 3 of 13 (23.1%) CRT-SRs without NHA had heart failure (HF) hospitalization, 1 of 47 (2.1%) CRT-SRs with NHA had this endpoint (P = 0.040). Besides, subgroup analysis indicated that, for ischemic etiology group, CRT-SRs receiving NHA had considerably lower incidence of HF hospitalization than those without NHA (0 vs. 75%, P = 0.014), which was not observed in non-ischemic etiology group (2.6% vs. 0, P = 1.000) during long-term follow-up. Conclusions Our study found that for ischemic etiology, compared with CRT-SRs with NHA, CRT-SRs without NHA were associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. However, for non-ischemic etiology, we found that CRT-SRs with NHA or without NHA at follow-up were associated with similar outcomes, which needed further investigation by prospective trials.
Objective To evaluate the PR to RR interval ratio (PR/RR, heart rate-adjusted PR) as a prognostic marker for long-term ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac death in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillators (CRT-D). Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 428 patients who had an ICD/CRT-D equipped with home monitoring. Baseline PR and RR interval data prior to ICD/CRT-D implantation were collected from standard 12-lead electrocardiograph, and the PR/RR was calculated. The primary endpoint was appropriate ICD/CRT-D treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), and the secondary endpoint was cardiac death. Results During a mean follow-up period of 38.8 ± 10.6 months, 197 patients (46%) experienced VAs, and 47 patients (11%) experienced cardiac death. The overall PR interval was 160 ± 40 ms, and the RR interval was 866 ± 124 ms. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, a cut-off value of 18.5% for the PR/RR was identified to predict VAs. A PR/RR ≥ 18.5% was associated with an increased risk of VAs [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.243, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.665–3.022, P P = 0.009) in an unadjusted analysis. After adjustment in a multivariate Cox model, the relationship remained significant among PR/RR ≥ 18.5%, VAs (HR = 2.230, 95%CI = 1.555–2.825, P P = 0.024. Conclusions A PR/RR ≥ 18.5% at baseline can serve as a predictor of future VAs and cardiac death in ICD/CRT-D recipients.
Objective To compare the long-term survival following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in an octogenarian population with that in a younger population. Methods This retrospective study included 274 patients that underwent TAVI for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The study group was divided into two age groups, as those with an age ≥ 80 years (octogenarians, n = 132), and age n = 142). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical outcomes and survival. In addition, significant predictors of survival were estimated. Results Non-cardiac mortality (during follow-up) (21.9% vs. 10.5%, P = 0.01) and in-hospital stroke (8.3% vs. 2.8%, P = 0.01) were more common among octogenarians. The two groups did not differ in terms of mean survival (41.0 ± 2.1 vs. 38.2 ± 2.2 months, respectively, P =0.18). Multivariate analysis identified left ventricular ejection fraction P = 0.01), preoperative of moderate to severe mitral insufficiency (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.15–3.06; P = 0.01), postoperative major and life-threating bleeding (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.05–5.89; P =0.03), and in-hospital stroke (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.04–5.04; P = 0.03) as potential predictors of poor survival. Conclusions In this study, similarly favorable survival outcomes were achieved in the elderly population as in younger patients, despite the presence of comorbid conditions. A consideration should be given to non-surgical management of severe aortic stenosis with the TAVI procedure in elderly patients, in the absence of co-existent conditions associated with shortened life expectancy.
Objective: Frailty and orthostatic hypotension (OH), which is common in older adults, is associated with morbidity and mortality. The relationship between them remains unclear. The aim of the study is to determine whether there is a relationship between frailty and OH. Methods: A total of 496 patients who were admitted to the geriatric clinic and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment were retrospectively reviewed. In a cross-sectional and observational study, OH was measured by the Head-up Tilt Table test at 1, 3, and 5 minutes (respectively, OH1, OH3, and OH5) and the frailty was measured by the Fried’s frailty scale. Results: The mean age of all patients was 75.4 ± 7.38. The prevalence of females was 69.8%. When the frail people were compared with the pre-frail and the robust ones, the frailty was associated with OH1. There was no relationship between the groups in terms of OH1 when the pre-frail group was compared with the robust group. OH3 were higher in the frail group than in the pre-frail group(p 0.05). Slowness and weakness were associated with OH1(p < 0.05), whereas the other components of the Fried’s test were not. Conclusions: Frailty may be a risk factor for OH1. 1st-minute measurements of OH should be routinely evaluated in frail older adults to prevent OH-related poor outcomes.
Background Because limited comparative data are available, we decided to compare 2-year major clinical outcomes between beta-blockers (BB) with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and BB with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) therapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods A total 11,288 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI with DES were enrolled and they were divided into two groups, the BB with ACEI group (n = 7600) and the BB with ARB group (n = 3688). The major clinical endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (re-MI), total revascularization [target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), non-TVR] rate during the 2-year follow-up period. Results After propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis, two PSM groups (3317 pairs, n = 6634, C-statistic = 0.695) were generated. Although the cumulative incidences of all-cause death, cardiac death, TLR, and non-TVR were similar between the two groups, MACE (HR = 0.832, 95% CI: 0.704-0.982, P = 0.030), total revascularization rate (HR = 0.767, 95% CI: 0.598-0.984, P = 0.037), and TVR rate (HR = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.470-0.888, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the BB with ACEI group after PSM. Conclusions In this study, we suggest that the combination of BB with ACEI may be beneficial for reducing the cumulative incidences of MACE, total revascularization rate, and TVR rather than the BB with ARB after PCI with DES in NSTEMI patients.
Background β-blocker (BB) therapy is a cornerstone for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). The evidence of the benefit from long-term BB therapy in diabetic patients with stable CHD is scarce. This meta-analysis summarizes the evidence relating to the BB therapy in diabetic patients with stable CHD. Methods A meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews of observational studies. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central were searched and two authors independently screened studies for eligibility. The quality of studies was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa scale. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in diabetic patients with and without BB therapy. A generic inverse variance model was used to pool odds ratio or hazards ratio from included studies to calculate the overall effect estimate. The significance threshold was set at P-value 2. Results Four non-randomized studies with 9515 participants were selected for the analyses. Four studies were post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials, and one article was an analysis of a nationally representative survey. In a fixed effects model, BB therapy in diabetic patients with stable CHD was found to be associated with increased risk of CV mortality, and MACE (27% and 32% respectively; P-value P-value = 0.22). Conclusion BB therapy in diabetic patients with stable CHD appears to be linked to higher mortality. Large randomized trials are needed in this population to confirm these findings.
Objectives To assess and synthesize the prospective cohort studies published so far on the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia incidence. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for potential studies published in English previous to April 2018. Two independent reviewers screened the search results for prospective cohort studies reporting the association between AF and dementia incidence in patients with normal cognitive function at baseline and not suffering from an acute stroke. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was adopted to evaluate the quality of the included studies. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of AF for dementia was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed with the I2 test and funnel plot, respectively. Results We finally identified 11 prospective cohort studies covering 112,876 patients. All the included studies reported an adjusted HR obtained in multiple Cox regression models. The qualities of the included studies ranged from moderate to high. In pooled analysis with a fixed-effects model, AF was independently associated with dementia incidence (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.24–1.44). Subgroup analysis of studies considering anticoagulation as an important confounding factor achieved a similar result. Based on the I2 test and funnel plot, we did not detect obvious heterogeneity and publication bias in our study. Meta-regression on age did not find significant results. Conclusions The results of our meta-analysis further confirmed that AF was an independent risk factor for dementia in patients with normal baseline cognitive function not suffering from acute stroke. Screening for dementia in AF patients and including dementia as an independent outcome in large AF treatment trials is warranted.