2019 Vol. 16, No. 4
Background Inflammation is an important element of the pathophysiological process of heart failure (HF) and is correlated with subtypes of HF. The association between multiple biomarkers of inflammation and HF subtypes in Chinese subjects remains unclear. This study aimed to compare the differences in inflammation biomarkers among Chinese patients with different subtypes of HF who have been identified to date. Methods We included 413 consecutive patients with HF, including 262 with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 55 with middle-ranged ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 96 with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Ten inflammation biomarkers were analyzed and compared according to the HF subtypes. One hundred contemporary non-HF subjects were also recruited as the control group. Moreover, the correlations between the inflammatory biomarkers and left ventricular ejection fraction of the HF subtypes were assessed. Results The mean age of the HF patients was 65.0 ± 12.0 years, 65.8% were male. Distinct subtypes of HF demonstrated different inflammation biomarker panels. IL-6, PTX-3, ANGPTL-4 and TNF-α were correlated with HFrEF; IL-1β and PTX-3 were correlated with HFmrEF; and IL-1β and IL-6 were correlated with HFpEF. The multivariable logistic regression showed that IL-1β [relative ratio (RR) = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.15, P = 0.010], IL-6 (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.06, P = 0.016), PTX-3 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11–1.55, P = 0.001), and ANGPTL-4 (RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.07, P P = 0.019), PTX-3 (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06–1.43, P = 0.007), and ANGPTL-4 (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.06, P = 0.005) were independently associated with the HF subtype. Conclusions Diverse inflammation biomarkers have multifaceted presentations according to the subtype of HF, which may illustrate the diverse mechanisms of inflammation in Chinese HF patients. IL-6, PTX-3, and ANGPTL-4 were independent inflammation factors associated with HFrEF and HF.
Background Contemporary heart failure medications have led to considerable improvement in the survival of patients with heart failure. However, limited evidence is available regarding the effect of those medications in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), particularly in China. We sought to analyze the trends in clinical characteristics and the prescription rate of recommended therapies and its prognostic impact in patients with IDCM. Methods From 2009 to 2016, 1441 consecutive patients (age: 55±14 years, 68% men, LVEF: 33% ± 12%) fulfilling World Health Organization criteria for IDCM were enrolled in the current retrospective cohort study. Temporal trends of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis were analyzed, and potential influential factors were explored. Results Rates of patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptors blockers, β-blockers, aldosterone receptor antagonists and diuretics increased from 55%, 45%, 58%, 51% in 2009 to 67%, 69%, 71%, 64% in 2016, respectively (P P P Conclusions An improvement in prescription rates of guideline-recommended medications in IDCM patients was observed. However, it remains suboptimal, and there is still some room for improvement. The prognosis of patients with optimal GDMT was better than those without. Moreover, the following patient category also had an improved prognosis: patients with LVEF ≥ 40%, with device therapy, and those admitted to a cardiology ward.
Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in vessels with severe diameter stenosis. Methods & Results Of 1090 patients undergoing fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment from 2002 to 2009, we identified 167 patients in whom FFR was measured in at least one 70%–89% stenotic lesion. These patients were subdivided into an FFR-defer group (n = 49) if PCI was deferred (FFR > 0.80), and an FFR-perform group (n = 118) if PCI was performed (FFR > 0.80). Comparatively, an additional 1176 patients undergoing PCI in at least one lesion with 70%–89% stenosis but without measurement of FFR served as a control (angiography-guided) group. Clinical outcomes were compared during a median follow-up of 49.0 months. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimated revascularization rates were 16% in the FFR-defer group and 33% in the FFR-perform group (P = 0.046). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events were comparable in these two groups (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.37–1.82, P = 0.63). The number of stents placed was significantly lower in the FFR-guided group (0.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.4 ± 0.8, P Conclusions Functional revascularization for lesions with visually severe stenosis is clinically safe and associated with fewer stents use. This study suggests that extending the use of FFR to more severe coronary lesions may be reasonable.
Objective To assess long-term survival and late cardiovascular events in patients with atrial myxoma after surgical intervention. Methods Retrospective analysis of 403 patients undergoing resection of atrial myxoma from January 2002 to December 2016 was con-ducted with a median follow-up period of 4.5 (range: 0.5-15) years. Results The cross-clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 41.1 ± 21.4 and 65.2 ± 27.3 min, respectively. A diagnosis of myxoma was histopathologically confirmed in all cases. The early in-hospital mortality rate was 0.7% (n = 3). During the follow-up period, tumor recurrence occurred in six patients and cerebral infarction in nine. There were 48 (11.9%) patients with late onset atrial fibrillation (AF). By multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09, P P = 0.012), and mitral valve surgery (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.29, P = 0.027) were independent predictors of late onset AF. Twenty-one (5.2%) patients died during the follow-up period. Advanced age (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04–1.10, P = 0.003) and multiple surgical procedures (HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.06–1.29, P = 0.012) were significantly associated with overall mortality. Conclusions Atrial myxoma can be resected with good long-term survival. Late onset AF is common after surgery in patients with atrial myxoma. Advanced age, left atrial diameter, and mitral valve surgery were independent predictors of outcomes.
Background Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with established atherosclerotic disease (EAD) and in those with multiple risk factors (MRFs). This study aimed to investigate the rate of optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level in a multicenter registry of patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. Methods A multicenter registry of EAD and MRF patients was conducted. Demographic data, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric data, laboratory data, and medications were recorded and analyzed. We classified patients according to target LDL levels based on recommendation by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2011 into Group 1 which is EAD and diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD)–target LDL below 70 mg/dL, and Group 2 which is MRF without diabetes or CKD–target LDL below 100 mg/dL. The rate of optimal LDL level in patients with Group 1 and Group 2 was analyzed and stratified according to the treatment pattern of lipid-lowering medications. Results A total of 3100 patients were included. Of those, 51.7% were male. Average age was 65.8 ± 9.7 years. Average LDL level was 96.3 ± 32.6 mg/dL. A vast majority (92.7%) received statin and 9.3% received ezetimibe. Optimal LDL level was achieved in 20.3% of patients in Group 1 (LDL Conclusions The rates of optimal LDL level were unacceptably low in this study population. As such, a strategy to improve LDL control in high-risk population should be implemented.
Objective To evaluate the differences in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in older patients with hypertension treated with the five major classes of antihypertensive drugs, as monotherapy or dual combination therapy, to improve daytime and nighttime BP control. Methods We enrolled 1920 Chinese community-dwelling outpatients aged ≥ 60 years and compared ambulatory BP values and ambulatory BP control (24-hour BP Results Patients’ mean age was 71 years, and 59.5% of patients were women. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) constituted the most common (60.3% of patients) monotherapy, and renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blockers combined with CCBs was the most common (56.5% of patients) dual combination therapy. Monotherapy with beta-blockers (BB) provided the best daytime BP control. The probabilities of having a nighttime dip pattern and night-time BP control were higher in patients receiving diuretics compared with CCBs (OR = 0.52, P = 0.05 and OR = 0.41, P = 0.007, respectively). Patients receiving RAS/diuretic combination therapy had a higher probability of having controlled nighttime BP compared with those receiving RAS/CCB (OR = 0.45, P = 0.004). Compared with RAS/diuretic therapy, BB/CCB therapy had a higher probability of achieving daytime BP control (OR = 1.27, P = 0.45). Conclusions Antihypertensive monotherapy and dual combination drug therapy provided different ambulatory BP control and nighttime BP dip patterns. BB-based regimens provided lower daytime BP, whereas diuretic-based therapies provided lower nighttime BP, compared with other antihypertensive regimens.
Differential diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) is of paramount importance for appropriate patient management. Several diagnostic algorithms for discrimination of VT and SVT based on surface electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis have been proposed. Following established diagnosis of VT, a specific origination tachycardia site can be supposed according to QRS complex characteristics. This review aims to cover comprehensive and comparative description of the main VT diagnostic algorithms and to present ECG characteristics which permit to suggest the most common VT origination sites.