2020 Vol. 17, No. 10
Heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in older patients with chronic kidney disease: the China Hypertension Survey (2012-2015)
2020, 17(10): 597-603. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.10.001
Background Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality for older chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, the epidemiological data is scarce. We aimed to determine the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and HF, and to explore the risk factors for HF among those patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of the China Hypertension Survey conducted between October 2012 and December 2015. A total of 5, 808 participants aged ≥ 65 years were included in the analysis. Self-reported history of HF and any other cardiovascular diseases was acquired. 2-D and Doppler echocardiography were used to assess LV dysfunction. CKD was defined as either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30 mg/g. Results Among CKD patients aged ≥ 65 years, the weighted prevalence of HF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) was 4.8%, 2.5%, 0.8%, and 1.7%, respectively. The weighted prevalence of HF was 5.0% in patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and was 5.9% in patients with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g. The prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction was 3.1%, and while it was 8.9% for moderate/severe diastolic dysfunction. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking was significantly associated with the risk of HF. Furthermore, age, smoking, and residents in rural areas were significantly associated with a risk of LV diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions The prevalence of HF and LV dysfunction was high in older patients with CKD, suggesting that particular strategies will be required.
Diabetes mellitus, revascularization and outcomes in elderly patients with myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock
2020, 17(10): 604-611. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.10.006
Background The prognostic role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in elderly patients with myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (MI-CS) remains controversial. Little information exists about the impact of intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) and revascularization on outcomes of elderly patients with MI-CS. We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of DM according to age in patients with MI-CS, and to analyze the impact ICCU management and revascularization on in-hospital mortality in MI-CS patients at older ages. Methods Discharge episodes with diagnosis of CS associated with MI were selected from the Spanish National Health System's Basic Data Set. Centers were classified according to their availability of ICCU. Main outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 23, 590 episodes of MI-CS were identified, of whom 12, 447 (52.8%) were in patients aged ≥ 75 years. The impact of DM on in-hospital mortality was different among age subgroups. While in younger patients, DM was associated to a higher mortality risk (0.52 vs. 0.47, OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06-1.18, χ2 < 0.001), this association became non-significant in older patients (0.76 vs. 0.81, χ2 = 0.09). Adjusted mortality rate of MI-CS aged ≥ 75 years was lower in patients admitted to hospitals with ICCU (adjusted mortality rate: 74.2% vs. 77.7%, P < 0.001) and in patients undergoing revascularization (74.9% vs. 77.3%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Prognostic impact of DM in patients with MI-CS was different according to age, with a significantly lower impact at older ages. The availability of ICCU and revascularization were associated with better outcomes in these complex patients.
Optimal INR level in elderly and non-elderly patients with atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin: a report from the COOL-AF nationwide registry in Thailand
2020, 17(10): 612-620. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.10.004
Background Asian population are at increased risk of bleeding during the warfarin treatment, so the recommended optimal international normalized ratio (INR) level may be lower in Asians than in Westerners. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the optimal INR level in Thai patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods Patients with NVAF who were on warfarin for stroke prevention were recruited from 27 hospitals in the nationwide COOL-AF registry in Thailand. We collected demographic data, medical history, risk factors for stroke and bleeding, concomitant disease, electrocardiogram and laboratory data including INR and antithrombotic medications. Outcome measurements included ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and major bleeding. Optimal INR level was assessed by the calculation of incidence density for six INR ranges (< 1.5, 1.5–1.99, 2–2.49, 2.5–2.99, 3–3.49, and ≥ 3.5). Results A total of 2, 232 patients were included. The mean age of patients was 68.5 ± 10.6 years. The mean follow-up duration was 25.7 ± 10.6 months. There were 63 ischemic stroke/TIA and 112 major bleeding events. The lowest prevalence of ischemic stroke/TIA and major bleeding events occurred within the INR range of 2.0–2.99 for patients < 70 years and 1.5–2.99 for patients ≥ 70 years. Conclusions The INR range associated with the lowest risk of ischemic stroke/TIA and bleeding in the Thai population was 2.0–2.99 for patients < 70 years and 1.5–2.99 for patients ≥ 70 years. The rates of major bleeding and ischemic stroke/TIA were both higher than the rates reported in Western population.
Risk scoring model for prediction of non-home discharge after transcatheter aortic valve replacement
2020, 17(10): 621-627. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.10.002
Background Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are likely to be discharged to a location other than home. We aimed to determine the association between preoperative risk factors and non-home discharge after TAVR. Methods Patients discharged alive after TAVR at three centers were identified from a prospectively maintained database randomly divided into 80% derivation and 20% validation cohorts. Logistic regression models were fit to identify preoperative factors associated with non-home discharge in the derivation cohort. Multivariable models were developed and a nomogram based risk-scoring system was developed for use in preoperative counseling. Results Between June 2012 and December 2018, a total of 1, 163 patients had TAVR at three centers. Thirty-seven patients who died before discharge were excluded. Of the remaining 1, 126 patients (97%) who were discharged alive, the incidence of non-home discharge was 25.6% (n = 289). The patient population was randomly divided into the 80% (n = 900) derivation cohort and 20% (n = 226) validation cohort. Mean ± SD age of the study population was 83 ± 8 years. In multivariable analysis, factors that were significantly associated with non-home discharge were extreme age, female sex, higher STS scores, use of general anesthesia, elective procedures, chronic liver disease, non-transfemoral approach and postoperative complications. The unbiased estimate of the C-index was 0.81 and the model had excellent calibration. Conclusions One out of every four patients undergoing TAVR is discharged to a location other than home. Identification of preoperative factors associated with non-home discharge can assist patient counseling and postoperative disposition planning.
Association of level of leisure-time physical activity with risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in an elderly Chinese population: a prospective cohort study
2020, 17(10): 628-637. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.10.003
Background Implementing the current guidelines for leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) provides significant health benefits, especially for middle-aged adults, but it is unclear whether LTPA also translates into cardiovascular health benefits among elderly people. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of LTPA with the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and all-cause mortality in an elderly population. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 32, 942 participants aged 60 years or older who participated in a health check-up programme in China between 2010 and 2018 were included. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality risks through the Cox regression model, competing risk model and restricted cubic spline model. Results During a median of 6.84 years of follow-up, there were 6, 857 elderly people with incident CVD; a total of 6, 324 deaths occurred due to all causes and 2, 060 deaths occurred due to CVD. Compared with the inactive group, reductions in CVD morbidity and mortality were observed, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.96) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) in the insufficiently active group, 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80-0.92) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69-0.90) in the sufficiently active group, and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70-0.89) and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.45-0.76) in the highly active group, respectively; but no significant reductions were observed in the very highly active group, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.71-1.06) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.70-1.40), respectively. Compared with the inactive group, reductions in all-cause mortality were also observed, with a HR of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.97) in the insufficiently active group, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.89) in the sufficiently active group, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67- 0.87) in the highly active group, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64-0.98) in the very highly active group. A restricted cubic spline diagram showed that there was an L-shaped association between LTPA and the risk of all-cause mortality but a U-shaped or reverse J-shaped relationship between LTPA and the risk of CVD morbidity and mortality, especially stroke. In addition, a subgroup analysis showed that elderly population who consistently performed LTPA for ten years or more had a lower risk of morbidity and mortality. Conclusions In an elderly population, even insufficient activity is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality and CVD, and moderate levels of LTPA may be optimal for CVD prevention. In addition, elderly people who consistently perform LTPA over several years may experience greater health benefits.