2020 Vol. 17, No. 9
The aging burden of hospitalization for heart failure in Chinese populations: evidence from the Macao Heart Failure Study
2020, 17(9): 533-543. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.09.008
Objective To assess the aging burden of hospitalization for heart failure in Chinese populations in Macao. Methods The Macao Heart Failure Study consists of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF) at Centro Hospitalar Conde de São Januário (the only public hospital that provides medical care for the approximately 600, 000 residents of Macao) from January 2014 to December 2016. First, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic development and epidemiological characteristics of HF in Macao. Then we assessed the patientso clinical features and outcomes according to the age groups. Results A total of 967 patients were included in the final analysis. The median age at admission was 82 years old. The advanced age at the admission of HF in Macao was significantly associated with a high-income level and the aging population structure. Marked heterogeneity existed in the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, utilization of evidence-based therapies, short- and long-term outcomes, and prognostic utility of clinical variables among the different age groups. Conclusion Rapid economic development and significantly aging populations have produced a profound impact on the epidemiological characteristics of HF in Chinese populations. Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is predominantly a disease of the elderly in Macao, and a significant heterogeneity exists in the clinical features, managements, and outcomes among different age groups. Age-based risk stratification models and multidisciplinary HF teams are urgently needed to improve the management and outcomes of hospitalized heart failure (HHF) patients.
Cardiovascular rehabilitation in patients aged 70-year-old or older: benefits on functional capacity, physical activity and metabolic profile in younger vs. older patients
2020, 17(9): 544-553. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.09.003
Background The benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) programs in post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients have been demonstrated. Our aim was to assess the impact of EBCR in ≥ 70-years-old vs. younger post-AMI patients. Methods We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a supervised EBCR protocol, twice a week during 6-12 weeks. We evaluated changes in several outcomes based on pre- and post-CRP assessments. Results Of a total of 1607 patients, 333 (21%) were ≥ 70-years-old. After the EBCR, an overall improvement on functional capacity, daily physical activity, lipid profile, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and C-reactive protein was observed in both younger and older patients (P < 0.05). Older patients showed a smaller benefit on the increment of daily physical activity and lipid profile improvement, but a larger reduction in NT-pro-BNP. In the multivariate analysis, only improvements on daily physical activity and HbA1c were dependent on age. Conclusion As their younger counterparts, older patients, significantly improved functional capacity, metabolic parameters and level of daily physical activity after EBCR.
Effects and mechanisms of glucose-insulin-potassium on post-procedural myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary intervention
2020, 17(9): 554-560. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.09.004
Objective To evaluate the effects and mechanisms of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on post-procedural myocardial injury (PMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 200 non-diabetic patients with documented coronary heart disease (CHD) were divided into the Group GIK and Group G, with 100 patients in each group. Patients in Group G were given intravenous infusion of glucose solution 2 hours before PCI. As compared, patients in Group GIK were given GIK. Results Both post-procedural creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB; 62.1 ± 47.8 vs. 48.8 ± 52.6 U/L, P = 0.007) and cTnI (0.68 ± 0.83 vs. 0.19 ± 0.24 ng/mL, P < 0.001) in Group GIK were significantly higher than those in Group G. In Group G, 9.0% and 4.0% of patients had post-procedural increases in CK-MB 1-3 times and > 3 times, which were significantly lower than those in Group GIK (14.0% and 7.0%, respectively; all P values < 0.01); 13.0% and 7.0% of patients had post-procedural increases in cTnI 1-3 times and > 3 times, which were also significantly lower than those in Group GIK (21.0% and 13.0%, respectively; all P < 0.001). Pre-procedural (10.2 ± 4.5 vs. 5.1 ± 6.3, P < 0.001) and post-procedural rapid blood glucose (RBG) levels (8.9 ± 3.9 vs. 5.3 ± 5.6, P < 0.001) in Group G were higher than those in Group GIK. In adjusted logistic models, usage of GIK (compared with glucose solution) remained significantly and independently associated with higher risk of post-procedural increases in both CK-MB and cTnI levels > 3 times. Furthermore, pre-procedural RBG levels < 5.0mmol/L were significantly associated with higher risk of post-procedural increases in both CK-MB and cTnI levels. Conclusions In non-diabetic patients with CHD, the administration of GIK may increase the risk of PMI due to hypoglycemia induced by GIK.
Impact of number of run-off vessels on interwoven nitinol mesh stents patency in the femoropopliteal segment
2020, 17(9): 561-565. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.09.002
Objective To evaluate the impact of run-off vessels number on the outcomes of Supera stent (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, Calif, USA) for treatment of femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 188 consecutive patients (mean age 68.2 ± 9.6 years, 100 males) undergone angiography and woven mesh stent implantation in femoral or popliteal arteries or both arterial segments, in our institution between January 1 2014 and January 1 2018. Target lesion revascularization and major adverse limb events at 12-month were evaluated comparing patients with 1-, 2- or 3-run-off vessels in the foot. Results Interventional success was achieved in 100%. Stent implantation involved in the femoral site in 56 patients (30.3%), the femoropopliteal in 92 patients (48.9%) and the popliteal site in 40 patients (21.3%). A significant improvement of ankle-brachial index (0.29 ± 0.6 vs. 0.88 ± 0.3, P < 0.001) and Rutherford class (5.3 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 1.9, P < 0.01) were observed before discharge. The median follow-up duration was 12.3 months (inter quartile range: 11.0 to 13.9). During the follow-up period, 52 patients (27.6%) had clinical events. Primary patency at 12 months was 72.4%. The primary patency significantly increased when the runoff status. Comparing the number of events among patients with different number of run-off vessels, a significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed for patients having one (24.0%) and two run-off vessels (15.0%). Conclusions The outcomes of Supera stent in femoropopliteal occlusive disease depend strictly on the number of run-off vessels.
2020, 17(9): 566-573. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.09.001
Background This preclinical study in sheep sought to demonstrate the initial safety and feasibility of a novel transcatheter mitral valve system (Mi-thos valve) composed of a self-expanding frame and a bovine pericardial tissue bioprosthesis. Methods The valve was implanted in 26 sheep using a transapical approach for short- and long-term evaluation. The technical feasibility, safety, durability, and valve function were evaluated during and 6 months after the procedure using intracardiac and transthoracic echocardiography, multisliced computed tomography, histological analysis, and electron microscopy. Results The success rate of valve implantation was 100%, and the immediate survival rate after surgery was 84%. Five animals died within 90 min after the development of the prosthetic valve due to an acute left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (n = 2) and sudden intraoperative ventricular fibrillation (n = 3). Twelve animals died within 1 month due to acute left heart dysfunction. Mild (n = 5) and moderate (n = 2) paravalvular leakage occurred in seven animals, and two moderate PVL animals died of chronic heart failure within three months. Multimodality imaging studies of the remaining seven animals showed excellent function and alignment of the valves, with no coronary artery obstruction, no left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, no severe transvalvular gradients and no paravalvular leakage. Macroscopic evaluation demonstrated stable, secure positioning of the valve, with full endothelialization of the valve leaflets without injury to the ventricular or atrial walls. Histological and electron microscopic examinations at six months showed no obvious macro- or microcalcification in the leaflets. Conclusions Preclinical studies indicate that transcatheter implantation of the Mi-thos valve is technically safe and feasible. The durability, functionality, and lack of leaflet calcification were all verified in animal experiments. The information from these preclinical studies will be applied to patient selection criteria and the first-in-human studies.