ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2021 Vol. 18, No. 1

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Outcomes of cardiac surgery in senior aged patients with ventricular dysfunction: analysis of a large national database
Han-Wei TANG, Kai CHEN, Jian-Feng HOU, Xiao-Hong HUANG, Sheng LIU, Han-Ping MA, Sheng-Shou HU
2021, 18(1): 1-9. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.006
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 OBJECTIVE In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, reduced preoperative ejection fraction (EF) and senior age are associated with a worse outcome. As most outcome data available for these patients are mainly from Western surgical populations involving specific surgery types, our aim is to evaluate the real-world characteristics and perioperative outcomes of surgery in senior-aged heart failure patients with reduced EF across a broad range cardiac surgeries. METHODS Data were obtained from the China Heart Failure Surgery Registry (China-HFSR) database, a nationwide multicenter registry study in mainland China. Multiple variable regression analysis was performed in patients over 75 years old to identify risk factors associated with mortality.  RESULTS From 2012 to 2017, 578 senior-aged (> 75 years) patients were enrolled in China HFSR, 21.1% of whom were female. Isolated coronary bypass grafting (CABG) were performed in 71.6% of patients, 10.1% of patients underwent isolated valve surgery and 8.7% received CABG combined with valve surgery. In-hospital mortality was 10.6%, and the major complication rate was 17.3%. Multivariate analysis identified diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 1.985), increased creatinine (OR = 1.007), New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III (OR = 1.408), NYHA class IV (OR = 1.955), cardiogenic shock (OR, 6.271), and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (OR = 3.426) as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.  CONCLUSIONS In senior-aged patients, preoperative evaluation should be carefully performed, and strict management of reversible factors needs more attention. Senior-aged patients commonly have a more severe disease status combined with more frequent comorbidities, which may lead to a high risk in mortality.
Potassium variability during hospitalization and outcomes after discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction
Xi-Ling ZHANG, Heng-Xuan CAI, Shan-Jie WANG, Xiao-Yuan ZHANG, Xin-Ran HAO, Shao-Hong FANG, Xue-Qin GAO, Bo YU
2021, 18(1): 10-19. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.004
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 BACKGROUND The variability of metabolic biomarkers has been determined to provide incremental prognosis information, but the implications of electrolyte variability remained unclear. METHODS We investigate the relationships between electrolyte fluctuation and outcomes in survivors of acute myocardial infarction (n = 4386). Ion variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation, standard deviation, variability independent of the mean (VIM) and range. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression method. RESULTS During a median follow-up of 12 months, 161 (3.7%) patients died, and heart failure occurred in 550 (12.5%) participants after discharge, respectively. Compared with the bottom quartile, the highest quartile potassium VIM was associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.36–4.06) and heart failure (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01–1.72) independent of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), infarction site, mean potassium and other traditional factors, while those associations across sodium VIM quartiles were insignificant. Similar trend remains across the strata of variability by other three indices. These associations were consistent after excluding patients with any extreme electrolyte value and diuretic use. CONCLUSIONS Higher potassium variability but not sodium variability was associated with adverse outcomes post-infarction. Our findings highlight that potassium variability remains a robust risk factor for mortality regardless of clinical dysnatraemia and dyskalaemia.
Beta-blocker therapy in elderly patients with renal dysfunction and heart failure
Juan Martínez-Milla, Marcelino Cortés García, Julia Anna Palfy, Mikel Taibo Urquía, Marta López Castillo, Ana Devesa Arbiol, Ana Lucía Rivero Monteagudo, María Luisa Martín Mariscal, Inés Jiménez-Varas, Sem Briongos Figuero, Juan Antonio Franco-Pelaéz, José Tuñón
2021, 18(1): 20-29. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.005
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 OBJECTIVE To assess the role of beta-blockers (BB) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) aged ≥ 75 years.  METHODS AND RESULTS From January 2008 to July 2014, we included 390 consecutive patients ≥ 75 years of age with ejection fraction ≤ 35% and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. We analyzed the relationship between treatment with BB and mortality or cardiovascular events. The mean age of our population was 82.6 ± 4.1 years. Mean ejection fraction was 27.9% ± 6.5%. GFR was 60−45 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in 50.3% of patients, 45−30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in 37.4%, and < 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in 12.3%. At the conclusion of follow-up, 67.4% of patients were receiving BB. The median follow-up was 28.04 (IR: 19.41−36.67) months. During the study period, 211 patients (54.1%) died and 257 (65.9%) had a major cardiovascular event (death or hospitalization for heart failure). BB use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of death (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35−0.74; P < 0.001). Patients receiving BB consistently showed a reduced risk of death across the different stages of CKD: stage IIIa (GFR = 30−45 mL/min per 1.73 m2; HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26−0.86, P < 0.0001), stage IIIb (GFR 30−45 mL/min per 1.73 m2; HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.26−1.06, P = 0.007), and stages IV and V (GFR < 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2; HR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11−0.76; P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS The use of BB in elderly patients with HFrEF and renal impairment was associated with a better prognosis. Use of BB should be encouraged when possible.
Obstructive sleep apnea increases heart rhythm disorders and worsens subsequent outcomes in elderly patients with subacute myocardial infarction
Ling-Jie WANG, Li-Na PAN, Ren-Yu YAN, Wei-Wei QUAN, Zhi-Hong XU
2021, 18(1): 30-38. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.002
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 OBJECTIVE Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potential cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the association of OSA with heart rhythm disorders and prognosis in elderly patients with new-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS We prospectively enrolled 252 AMI elderly patients (mean age, 68.5 ± 6.9 years) who were undergoing revascularization and completed a sleep study during their hospitalization. All subjects were categorized into non-OSA (apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) < 15, n = 130) and OSA (AHI ≥ 15, n = 122) groups based on the AHI. The changes in the autonomic nervous system, incidence of arrhythmia during nocturnal sleep, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS The mean AHI value in all AMI patients was 22.8 ± 10.9. OSA patients showed higher levels of body mass index and peak high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lower levels of minimum nocturnal oxygen saturation (MinSaO2), as well as greater proportion of multivessel coronary artery disease (all P < 0.05). The OSA group also showed significant increases in heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence onset (both P < 0.05) and higher incidence of arrhythmia (including sinus, atrial, and ventricular in origin). At a median follow-up of 6 months (mean 0.8–1.6 years), OSA (AHI ≥ 15) combined with hypoxia (MinSaO2 ≤ 80%) was independently associated with the incidence of MACCEs (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.536; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.461−14.084, P = 0.009) after adjusting for traditional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS OSA and OSA-induced hypoxia may correlate with the severity of myocardial infarction, increase the occurrence of heart rhythm disorders in elderly subacute MI patients, and worsen their short-term poor outcomes.
Sex modification of the association of the radial augmentation index and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population
Qiao QIN, Fang-Fang FAN, Meng-Yuan LIU, Bo LIU, Jia JIA, Long ZHANG, Yu-Xi LI, Yi-Meng JIANG, Peng-Fei SUN, Dan-Mei HE, Jian-Ping LI, Ming CHEN, Bo ZHENG, Yan ZHANG
2021, 18(1): 39-46. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.003
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 BACKGROUND Arterial stiffness, as assessed by aortic ultrasound and pulse wave velocity, is associated with incident hypertension. However, there is still no consensus on whether the augmentation index (AI) affects new onset of hypertension. This study investigated the relationship of radial AI (rAI) and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population without hypertension at baseline. METHOD A total of 1,615 Chinese non-hypertensive participants from an atherosclerosis cohort in Beijing, China were included in our analysis. Baseline rAI normalized to heart rate of 75 beats/min (rAIp75) was obtained using HEM-9000AI. New-onset hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or taking anti-hypertensive medications at the follow up survey. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the impact of rAIp75 on the risk of new-onset hypertension. RESULTS After a mean 2.35-year follow-up, 213 (13.19%) participants developed incident hypertension. No significant relation between rAIp75 and incident hypertension was observed in the whole population after adjustment for possible confounders (adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 [0.95−1.27]; P = 0.2260). However, rAIp75 was significantly associated with incident hypertension in women, but not in men (adjusted OR and 95% CI: 1.29 [1.06−1.56], P = 0.0113 for women; 0.91 [0.72−1.15], P = 0.4244 for men; P for interaction = 0.0133).  CONCLUSIONS Sex modified the effect of the rAI on incident hypertension in a Chinese, community-based, non-hypertensive population. Screening of the rAI could be considered in women with a high risk of hypertension for the purpose of primary intervention.
REVIEW
Neurohumoral, cardiac and inflammatory markers in the evaluation of heart failure severity and progression
Ekaterina A Polyakova, Evgeny N Mikhaylov, Dmitry L Sonin, Yuri V Cheburkin, Mikhail M Galagudza
2021, 18(1): 47-66. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.007
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Heart failure is common in adult population, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main risk factors for heart failure are coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary diseases, family history of cardiovascular diseases, cardiotoxic therapy. The main factor associated with poor outcome of these patients is constant progression of heart failure. In the current review we present evidence on the role of established and candidate neurohumoral biomarkers for heart failure progression management and diagnostics. A growing number of biomarkers have been proposed as potentially useful in heart failure patients, but not one of them still resembles the characteristics of the “ideal biomarker.” A single marker will hardly perform well for screening, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management purposes. Moreover, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of biomarkers may depend on the presentation, stage, and severity of the disease. The authors cover main classification of heart failure phenotypes, based on the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and the recently proposed category heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction. One could envisage specific sets of biomarker with different performances in heart failure progression with different left ventricular ejection fraction especially as concerns prediction of the future course of the disease and of left ventricular adverse/reverse remodeling. This article is intended to provide an overview of basic and additional mechanisms of heart failure progression will contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the disease pathogenesis.
Patent foramen ovale closure in non-lacunar cryptogenic ischemic stroke: where are we now?
Adrià ARBOIX, Olga PARRA, Josefina ALIÓ
2021, 18(1): 67-74. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.009
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Patent foram ovale (PFO) is the most common anatomical cause of an interarterial shunt. It is usually asymptomatic but may cause paradoxical embolism and is a risk factor for non-lacunar cryptogenic cerebral ischemia in young adults. Although the first clinical trials did not show a significant superiority of PFO closure in the secondary prevention of cerebral ischemia as compared with standard antithrombotic treatment, six subsequent randomized clinical trials (CLOSURE I, PC Trial, RESPECT, CLOSE, REDUCE, and DEFENSE-PFO) performed in a sample of cryptogenic stroke in patients aged 60 years or younger provided evidence of a significant reduction of recurrent cerebral ischemia after percutaneous PFO closure. However, the use of percutaneous PFO closure cannot be generalized to the entire population of patients with cerebral ischemia and PFO, but it is indicated in highly selected patients with non-lacunar cryptogenic cerebral infarction with a large right-to-left shunt, an atrial septal aneurysm and no evidence of atrial fibrillation, as well as in association with antithrombotic treatment for an optimal secondary prevention of cerebral ischemia.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Hypertension and its physio-psychosocial risks factors in elderly people: a cross-sectional study in north-eastern region of Bangladesh
Gowranga Kumar Paul, Mohammad Meshbahur Rahman, Mohammad Hamiduzzaman, Zaki Farhana, Somaresh Kumar Mondal, Saleha Akter, Shayla Naznin, Md. Nazrul Islam
2021, 18(1): 75-82. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.011
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Influence of normal to high stroke volume on congestive heart failure development after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: case series
Tomoko Tomioka, Tomohiro Ito, Ryokichi Takahasi, Shuhei Tanaka
2021, 18(1): 83-88. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.010
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How to do when PFO closure failed under routine guidance: the first clinical experience for PFO closure
Ying ZHOU, Jun-Gang NIE
2021, 18(1): 89-90. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.008
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