2021 Vol. 18, No. 3
One out of three hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) involve nowadays elderly patients, carrying together a significant burden of comorbidities and a higher risk of complications. In particular, both ischemic and haemorrhagic risk are markedly enhanced in advanced age, and strictly interconnected, challenging the management of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in these patients. The recent development of several therapeutic options in terms of duration and combination of antiplatelet agents have offered a wider spectrum of opportunities for a more individualized approach in the management of DAPT after an ACS, although the criteria for the selection of the most appropriate strategy in each patient still lack validation. In particular, dose-adjustment, early aspirin discontinuation, laboratory-driven tailoring and shorter or extended DAPT have been addressed with promising safety and efficacy results. The present review provides an updated overview on the emerging evidencefrom randomized clinical trials and subanalyses dedicated to the management of DAPT in elderly patients presenting with ACS.
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by structural and/or functional cardiac abnormalities, resulting in a reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intracardiac filling pressures at rest or during stress. HF is a major public health problem with high prevalence and incidence, involving both high morbidity and mortality, but also high economic costs. The incidence of HF progressively increases with age, reaching around 20% among people over 75 years old. Indeed, HF represents the leading cause of hospitalization in patients older than 65 years in Western countries. Hence, some authors even consider HF a geriatric syndrome, entailing worse prognosis and high residual disability, and often associating some complex comorbidities, common in older population, that may further complicate the course of the disease. On the other hand, however, clinical course and prognosis may be often difficult to predict. In this article, main pathophysiological issues related to the aging heart are addressed, together with key aspects related to both diagnosis and prognosis in elderly patients with HF. Besides, main geriatric conditions, common in the elderly population, are reviewed, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach.