OBJECTIVE To examine whether difficulty of falling asleep (DoFA) is associated with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level among Canadian older adults. METHODS 26,954 individuals aged 45–85 years from the baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study for Aging were included in this study. DoFA was categorized into five groups by answer to the question “Over the last month, how often did it take you more than 30 min to fall asleep?” Response options are “Never, < 1 time/week, 1−2 times/week, 3−5 times/week, or 6−7 times/week”. Non-HDL-C, the difference of total cholesterol and HDL-C, were categorized into five categories based on these cut-offs (< 2.6 mmol/L, 2.6−3.7 mmol/L, 3.7−4.8 mmol/L, 4.8−5.7 mmol/L, and ≥ 5.7 mmol/L). Ordinal logistic regression (logit link) continuation ratio models were used to estimate the odds of higher non-HDL-C levels for DoFA status. Adjusted means of non-HDL-C by DoFA status were estimated by general linear models. All analyses were sex separately using analytic weights to ensure generalizability. RESULTS The proportions of DoFA in five categories were 41.6%, 25.7%, 13.6%, 9.4%, 9.7% for females and 52.9%, 24.9%, 10.5%, 6.1%, 5.6% for males, respectively. After adjustment of demographical and other covariates (such as depression, comorbidity, sleeping hour, etc.) compared to those who reported never having DoFA, the ORs (95% CIs) of higher levels of non-HDL-C for those whose DoFA status in < 1 time/week, 1−2 times/week, 3−5 times/week, and 6−7 times/week were 1.12 (1.05−1.21), 1.09 (0.99−1.18), 1.20 (1.09−1.33), 1.29 (1.17−1.43) in females and 1.05 (0.98−1.13), 0.95 (0.87−1.05), 1.21 (1.08−1.37), 0.97 (0.85−1.09) in males, respectively. The adjusted means of non-HDL-C among the five DoFA status were 3.68 mmol/L, 3.73 mmol/L, 3.74 mmol/L, 3.82 mmol/L, 3.84 mmol/L for females and 3.54 mmol/L, 3.58 mmol/L, 3.51 mmol/L, 3.69 mmol/L, 3.54 mmol/L for males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study have identified a risk association pattern between DoFA status and non-HDL-C levels in females but not in males. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Please cite this article as: LIU J, Son S, Giancaterino M, Narushima M. Difficulty of falling asleep and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among Canadian older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study for Aging baseline data. J Geriatr Cardiol 2021; 18(8): 597−608. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.003