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2021, Volume 18,  Issue 8

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Difficulty of falling asleep and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among Canadian older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study for Aging baseline data
Jian LIU, Surim Son, Mike Giancaterino, Miya Narushima
2021, 18(8): 597-608. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.003
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Abstract:
 OBJECTIVE To examine whether difficulty of falling asleep (DoFA) is associated with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level among Canadian older adults. METHODS 26,954 individuals aged 45–85 years from the baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study for Aging were included in this study. DoFA was categorized into five groups by answer to the question “Over the last month, how often did it take you more than 30 min to fall asleep?” Response options are “Never, < 1 time/week, 1−2 times/week, 3−5 times/week, or 6−7 times/week”. Non-HDL-C, the difference of total cholesterol and HDL-C, were categorized into five categories based on these cut-offs (< 2.6 mmol/L, 2.6−3.7 mmol/L, 3.7−4.8 mmol/L, 4.8−5.7 mmol/L, and ≥ 5.7 mmol/L). Ordinal logistic regression (logit link) continuation ratio models were used to estimate the odds of higher non-HDL-C levels for DoFA status. Adjusted means of non-HDL-C by DoFA status were estimated by general linear models. All analyses were sex separately using analytic weights to ensure generalizability. RESULTS The proportions of DoFA in five categories were 41.6%, 25.7%, 13.6%, 9.4%, 9.7% for females and 52.9%, 24.9%, 10.5%, 6.1%, 5.6% for males, respectively. After adjustment of demographical and other covariates (such as depression, comorbidity, sleeping hour, etc.) compared to those who reported never having DoFA, the ORs (95% CIs) of higher levels of non-HDL-C for those whose DoFA status in < 1 time/week, 1−2 times/week, 3−5 times/week, and 6−7 times/week were 1.12 (1.05−1.21), 1.09 (0.99−1.18), 1.20 (1.09−1.33), 1.29 (1.17−1.43) in females and 1.05 (0.98−1.13), 0.95 (0.87−1.05), 1.21 (1.08−1.37), 0.97 (0.85−1.09) in males, respectively. The adjusted means of non-HDL-C among the five DoFA status were 3.68 mmol/L, 3.73 mmol/L, 3.74 mmol/L, 3.82 mmol/L, 3.84 mmol/L for females and 3.54 mmol/L, 3.58 mmol/L, 3.51 mmol/L, 3.69 mmol/L, 3.54 mmol/L for males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study have identified a risk association pattern between DoFA status and non-HDL-C levels in females but not in males. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Impact of statin intensity on adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in older adult patients with myocardial infarction
In Tae Moon, Si-Hyuck Kang, Wonjae Lee, Youngjin Cho, Jin Joo Park, Yeonyee E. Yoon, Il-Young Oh, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi, Young-Seok Cho
2021, 18(8): 609-622. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.005
Abstract:
 BACKGROUND There is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of high-intensity statin therapy in older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high-intensity statin treatment on the clinical outcomes in older adults with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS Consecutive patients with MI aged at least 75 years were analyzed retrospectively. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, MI, rehospitalization due to unstable angina, repeat revascularization, and ischemic stroke. The high-intensity group was compared to the low-to-moderate intensity group in the propensity score-matched cohort. RESULTS Average age of total 546 patients was 81 years. Among them, 84% of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. The unadjusted seven-year MACCE rate differed by statin intensity (high-intensity statin group: 38%, moderate-intensity statin group: 42%, low-intensity statin group: 56%, and no-statin group: 61%, P = 0.004). However, among these groups, many baseline characteristics were significantly different. Among the 74 propensity score-matched pairs, which lacked any significant differences in all baseline characteristics, the high-intensity group had a significantly lower rate of MACCE than the low-to-moderate intensity group (37% vs. 53%, P = 0.047). Follow-up low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the high-intensity group than that in the low-to-moderate intensity group (69.4 ± 16.0 mg/dL vs. 77.9 ± 25.9 mg/dL, P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS In older adult patients with MI, the use of high-intensity statin caused significantly less occurrence of MACCE in comparison to that in low-to-moderate intensity for up to seven years of follow-up.
A comparison of carotid atherosclerosis in symptomatic patients between 2002–2005 and 2012–2015 cohorts using multi-contrast magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging
Ming-Ming LU, Peng PENG, Thomas S. Hatsukami, Fei YUAN, Yuan-Yuan CUI, Li-Chen ZHANG, Hui-Yu QIAO, Chun YUAN, Jian-Ming CAI, Xi-Hai ZHAO
2021, 18(8): 623-630. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.006
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Abstract:
 OBJECTIVE To compare the morphological and compositional characteristics of carotid plaques in two cohorts (2002−2005 and 2012−2015) of Chinese patients using magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging. METHODS Symptomatic patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaques who underwent carotid vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging between 2002−2005 and 2012−2015 were retrospectively recruited. Plaque morphology [including mean wall area, wall thickness, and maximum normalized wall index (NWI)] and composition [including calcification, intraplaque hemorrhage, and lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC)] in symptomatic carotid arteries were evaluated and compared between patients in these two time periods. RESULTS A total of 258 patients, including 129 patients in the 2002−2005 cohort and 129 patients in the 2012−2015 cohort, were recruited. Statin use (49.6% vs. 32.6%, P = 0.004) and hypertension (76.0% vs. 62.8%, P = 0.015) were significantly more common in the 2012–2015 cohort than in the 2002−2005 cohort. Patients in the 2012−2015 cohort also exhibited significantly low plaque burden parameters (all P < 0.05), as well as a lower prevalence (68.2% vs. 89.9%, P < 0.001) and volume percentages of LRNC (11.2% ± 14.2% vs. 25.7% ± 17.7%, P < 0.001). These differences remained significant after adjustment for clinical factors. The differences in the volume percentages of LRNC also remained significant after an additional adjustment for maximum NWI (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patients in the 2012−2015 cohort had a lower plaque burden and volume percentages of LRNC in symptomatic carotid arteries than those in the 2002−2005 cohort. These findings indicate that carotid plaques in the recent cohort had a lower severity and vulnerability.
Association between non-culprit healed plaque and plaque progression in acute coronary syndrome patients: an optical coherence tomography study
Wei-Jun YIN, Jing JING, Ying-Qian ZHANG, Feng TIAN, Tao ZHANG, Shan-Shan ZHOU, Yun-Dai CHEN
2021, 18(8): 631-644. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.001
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Abstract:
 BACKGROUND Healed plaques are frequently found in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but the prognostic value is debatable. This study investigated the clinical features of non-culprit healed plaques detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the aim of predicting plaque progression of healed plaques. METHODS This study retrospectively analyzed 113 non-culprit lesions from 85 patients who underwent baseline OCT imaging and follow-up angiography from January 2015 to December 2019. Plaque progression predictors were assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS Among 113 non-culprit lesions, 27 healed plaques (23.9%) were identified. Patients with non-culprit healed plaques had prior antiplatelet therapy (65.0% vs. 33.8%, P = 0.019), hypertension (85.0% vs. 50.7%, P = 0.009), and dyslipidemia (70.0% vs. 41.5%, P = 0.04) which were more frequently than those without healed plaques. The thickness (r = 0.674, P < 0.001), arc (r = 0.736, P < 0.001), and volume (r = 0.541, P = 0.004) of healed plaque were correlated with minimum lumen diameter changes. At a mean follow-up of 11.5 months, the non-culprit healed plaques had a lower minimum lumen diameter (1.61 ± 0.46 mm vs. 1.91 ± 0.73 mm, P = 0.016), lower average lumen diameter (1.86 mm vs. 2.10 mm, P = 0.033), and a higher degree of diameter stenosis (41.4% ± 11.9% vs. 35.5% ± 13.1%, P = 0.031) when compared to baseline measurements. The plaque progression rate was higher in the healed plaque group (33.3% vs. 8.1%, P = 0.002), and multivariate analysis identified healed plaques [odds ratio (OR) = 8.49, 95% CI: 1.71−42.13] and lumen thrombus (OR = 10.69, 95% CI: 2.21−51.71) as predictors of subsequent lesion progression. CONCLUSIONS Healed plaques were a predictor for rapid plaque progression. The quantitative parameters of healed plaque showed a good agreement with plaque progression. Patients with healed plaque were associated with prior antiplatelet therapy and high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Bifurcation lesions might be the predilection sites of healed plaques.
Associations of tea consumption with blood pressure progression and hypertension incidence
Xiao-Ge NIU, Can CAI, Fang-Chao LIU, Jian-Xin LI, Ke-Yong HUANG, Xue-Li YANG, Jie CAO, Shu-Feng CHEN, Hong-Fan LI, Chong SHEN, Ying-Xin ZHAO, Dong-Sheng HU, Shu-Jun GU, Jian-Feng HUANG, Xiang-Feng LU, Dong-Feng GU
2021, 18(8): 645-653. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.004
Abstract:
 BACKGROUND Association between tea consumption and incident hypertension remains uncertain. This study conducted to examine the health effects of tea consumption on blood pressure progression and hypertension incidence. METHODS A population-based cohort of 38,913 Chinese participants without hypertension at baseline were included in the current study. Information on tea consumption was collected through standardized questionnaires. Associations of tea consumption with blood pressure progression and incident hypertension were analyzed using logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards regression models, respectively. RESULTS During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 17,657 individuals had experienced progression to a higher blood pressure stage and 5,935 individuals had developed hypertension. In multivariate analyses, habitual tea drinkers (≥ 3 times/week for at least six months) had a 17% lower risk for blood pressure progression [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.79–0.88] and a 14% decreased risk for incident hypertension [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80–0.91] compared with non-habitual tea drinkers. Individuals in different baseline blood pressure groups could obtain similar benefit from habitual tea drinking. In terms of tea consumption amount, an inverse, linear dose-response relation between monthly consumption of tea leaves and risk of blood pressure progression was observed, while the risk of incident hypertension did not reduce further after consuming around 100 g of tea leaves per month. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrated that habitual tea consumption could provide preventive effect against blood pressure progression and hypertension incidence.
Prognostic relevance of normocytic anemia in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular disease
Liana Spazzafumo, Fabiola Olivieri, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Roberta Galeazzi, Rina Recchioni, Fiorella Marcheselli, Paola Tamburrini, Roberto Antonicelli
2021, 18(8): 654-662. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.008
Abstract:
 BACKGROUND Anemia associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is a common condition in older persons. Prevalence and prognostic role of anemia were extensively studied in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) or congestive heart failure (CHF) whereas limited data were available on patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was conducted to assess the clinical prevalence and prognostic relevance of anemia in elderly patients affected by AF and other CVDs. METHODS A total of 866 elderly patients (430 men and 436 women, age: 65−98 years, mean age: 85 ± 10 years) were enrolled. Among these patients, 267 patients had acute non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 176 patients had acute CHF, 194 patients had acute AF and 229 patients were aged-matched healthy persons (CTR). All parameters were measured at the hospital admission and cardiovascular mortality was assessed during twenty-four months of follow-up. RESULTS The prevalence of anemia was higher in NSTEMI, CHF and AF patients compared to CTR subjects (50% vs. 15%, P < 0.05), with normocytic anemia being the most prevalent type (90%). Adjusted mortality risk was higher in anemic patient versus non-anemic patient in all the groups of patients [NSTEMI: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06−2.13; CHF: HR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.31−4.75; AF: HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.01−3.88]. Decreased hemoglobin levels (P = 0.001) and high reticulocyte index (P = 0.023) were associated with higher mortality in CVD patients. CONCLUSIONS The significant associations between CVD and anemia and the prognostic relevance of anemia for elderly patients with CVD were confirmed in this study. The presence of anemia in AF patients is associated with a two-fold increased mortality risk compared with non-anemic AF patients. Low hemoglobin and high reticulocyte count independently predict mortality in elderly patients with CVD.
REVIEW
Atypical antipsychotics and oxidative cardiotoxicity: review of literature and future perspectives to prevent sudden cardiac death
Stefano D’Errico, Raffaele La Russa, Aniello Maiese, Alessandro Santurro, Matteo Scopetti, Silvia Romano, Martina Zanon, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
2021, 18(8): 663-685. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.002
Abstract:
Oxidative stress is considered the principal mediator of myocardial injury under pathological conditions. It is well known that reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in myocardial injury and repair at the same time and that cellular damage is generally due to an unbalance between generation and elimination of the free radicals due to an inadequate mechanism of antioxidant defense or to an increase in ROS and RNS. Major adverse cardiovascular events are often associated with drugs with associated findings such as fibrosis or inflammation of the myocardium. Despite efforts in the preclinical phase of the development of drugs, cardiotoxicity still remains a great concern. Cardiac toxicity due to second-generation antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine) has been observed in preclinical studies and described in patients affected with mental disorders. A role of oxidative stress has been hypothesized but more evidence is needed to confirm a causal relationship. A better knowledge of cardiotoxicity mechanisms should address in the future to establish the right dose and length of treatment without impacting the physical health of the patients.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Impact of isolated non-dominant hypoplastic right coronary artery disease on cardiovascular events and mortality rates in the elderly
Gianluca Rigatelli, Marco Zuin, Gianese Filippo
2021, 18(8): 686-688. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.007
Abstract:
Shockwave intravascular lithotripsy and drug-coated balloon angioplasty in calcified coronary arteries: preliminary experience in two cases
Hee Hwa Ho, Jin Hyun Lee, Deanna Zhi Lin Khoo, Ko Ko Soe Hpone, Ki Fung Cliff Li
2021, 18(8): 689-691. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.009
Abstract:
Short-term observation of direct oral anticoagulant use in an atrial fibrillation patient with high bleeding risk and kidney transplant: a case report
Wei XIANG, Ling-Yun KONG, Jing BAI, Jun-Jie XIE, Fang LIU
2021, 18(8): 692-696. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.010
Abstract: