Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine; Shanghai, China
Department of Stomatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai,
We would like to thank Shaobo Su (Tongji Univer-sity) for the critical discussion of the conception and design. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB967500) and by the Science and Technology Committee foundation of Shanghai (16411965500; 16511102802).
Depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both highly prevalent disorders, and some evidence shows that there is a ‘vi-cious cycle’ linking major depression and CVD. There is also growing evidence that immune abnormalities underpin the common pathophysiology of both CVD and major depression. The abnormalities include the following: abnormal levels of inflammatory mark-ers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 (IL-12); increased acute phase proteins, such as C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and haptoglobin; and abnormal complement factors. The findings show that ma-jor depression and CVD patients have greater immune abnormalities, which may increase depressive symptoms and cardiovascular pathological changes, and that there may be a bidirectional relationship, therefore more prospective studies are needed to draw conclu-sions.