ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R
Marc-Alexander Ohlow. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity. J Geriatr Cardiol 2017; 14(12): 750-762. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.12.005
Citation: Marc-Alexander Ohlow. Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity. J Geriatr Cardiol 2017; 14(12): 750-762. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.12.005

Congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula: an entity in search of an identity

doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.12.005
  • Received Date: 2017-12-25
  • Rev Recd Date: 2017-12-25
  • Publish Date: 2017-12-28
  • Congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum are rare cardiac malformations described in 809 cases since the first description in 1816, being associated with other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4th embryonic week. In an experimental study, targeted knockdown of cardiac troponin T in the chick was performed at day 3, after the heart tube has formed. Morpholino treatment of gene TNNT2 at this stage led to the development of left ventricular diverticula (LVD) in the primitive left ventricular wall. Diagnosis of left ventricular aneurysms (LVA)/LVD can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most of LVA and LVD are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, congestive heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography) visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications, options include surgical resection (especially in symptomatic patients), anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an ICD in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardias, and occasionally combined with class I- or III-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac death occurs usually in childhood, is significantly more frequent in LVA patients and caused by congestive heart failure in most of the cases, whereas patients diagnosed with LVD died more frequently from rupture of the LVD.
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