Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the elderly. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the standard practice for treating severe, symptomatic AS, but recently new treatment options have emerged. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now an established treatment option in patients at high surgical risk. In this review, we focus on recent developments and compare the two treatment methods in specific populations in terms of efficacy and safety (e.g., in patients with history of prior thoracic surgery, type of anesthesia employed, access site used or need for permanent pacing). The impact of comorbidities (pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension and obesity paradox), the cost-effectiveness of TAVR vs. SAVR and advances in transcatheter valve technology as well as issues that merit further investigation are further discussed. Moreover, outcomes and complications of TAVR in patients of different risk category (extremely high, high, intermediate and low risk) are analyzed. We strongly believe that during the following years, TAVR may evolve as the treatment of choice in a broader group of patients with symptomatic AS and beyond those with intermediate and high-risk features.