Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic
Department of Cardioangiology, St. Anne's University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, CZ, Czech Republic; International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno, CZ, Czech Republic
This article was supported by Ministry of Health, Czech Republic-conceptual development of research organiza?tions―FNOs/2015
Coronary stent implantation has significantly improved percutaneous coronary intervention and enabled the management of early complications of plain balloon angioplasty. However, a new complication has accompanied these improvements: in-stent restenosis (ISR) arising from neointimal hyperplasia. ISR after coronary angioplasty is currently one of the main limitations of this method, leading to the recurrence of exertional angina pectoris or acute coronary syndromes. The clinical incidence of ISR after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation is approximately 20%–35%. The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) has led to a further decrease in the occurrence of ISR to 5%–10%. Evidence resulting from controlled clinical studies suggests that DES and drug-eluting balloon catheters (DEB) provide the best clinical and angiographic results in the treatment of ISR. We undertook a systematic review of the pathophysiology, diagnostics and treatment options for BMS- and DES-ISR. We discuss recent randomised studies, comparing different DES or DEB used for BMS or DES-ISR treatment, as well as the use of new biovascular scafolds and the topic of scafold restenosis.