Background Anemia is a common comorbidity of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). This study evaluated the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and treatment in Chinese TA patients with anemia. Methods This retrospective study included 533 consecutive patients hospitalized for TA from January 2009 to April 2018. Anemia was diagnosed on the basis of hemoglobin level, according to World Health Organization criteria. Results A total of 194 patients (36.4%) were diagnosed with anemia. Most had mild anemia (177, 91.2%). Female patients were predominant (92.8% of anemic patients). Normocytic anemia (62.9%) was the most common pattern. Anemic patients were more likely than non-anemic patients to have dizziness (29.4% vs. 21.2%), low body mass index (22.0 ± 3.6 vs. 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2), and active disease stage (64.9% vs. 50.1%); pulmonary involvement (12.4% vs. 26.8%), pulmonary hypertension (12.9% vs. 20.1%) and pulmonary hypertensive-target drugs (2.8% vs. 11.6%) were less common among anemic than non-anemic patients (all P Conclusions Anemia is a very common concurrent condition in TA, especially in young, female patients. Patients with anemia are more likely to be in the active disease stage. Iron supplementation helps increase hemoglobin.