ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

Dear Colleagues,

Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (J Geriatr Cardiol, JGC) will launch a new website and adopt ScholarOne ManuscriptsTM system to manage the submission and peer review process from November 1, 2020. To review and check the status of your manuscripts submitted before November 2020, please visit...


Volume 18 Issue 1
Feb.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Please cite this article as: QIN Q, FAN FF, LIU MY, LIU B, JIA J, ZHANG L, LI YX, JIANG YM, SUN PF, HE DM, LI JP, CHEN M, ZHENG B, ZHANG Y. Sex modification of the association of the radial augmentation index and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population. J Geriatr Cardiol 2021; 18(1): 39−46. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.003
Citation: Please cite this article as: QIN Q, FAN FF, LIU MY, LIU B, JIA J, ZHANG L, LI YX, JIANG YM, SUN PF, HE DM, LI JP, CHEN M, ZHENG B, ZHANG Y. Sex modification of the association of the radial augmentation index and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population. J Geriatr Cardiol 2021; 18(1): 39−46. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.003

Sex modification of the association of the radial augmentation index and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population

doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.01.003
More Information
  •  BACKGROUND Arterial stiffness, as assessed by aortic ultrasound and pulse wave velocity, is associated with incident hypertension. However, there is still no consensus on whether the augmentation index (AI) affects new onset of hypertension. This study investigated the relationship of radial AI (rAI) and incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population without hypertension at baseline. METHOD A total of 1,615 Chinese non-hypertensive participants from an atherosclerosis cohort in Beijing, China were included in our analysis. Baseline rAI normalized to heart rate of 75 beats/min (rAIp75) was obtained using HEM-9000AI. New-onset hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or taking anti-hypertensive medications at the follow up survey. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the impact of rAIp75 on the risk of new-onset hypertension. RESULTS After a mean 2.35-year follow-up, 213 (13.19%) participants developed incident hypertension. No significant relation between rAIp75 and incident hypertension was observed in the whole population after adjustment for possible confounders (adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 [0.95−1.27]; P = 0.2260). However, rAIp75 was significantly associated with incident hypertension in women, but not in men (adjusted OR and 95% CI: 1.29 [1.06−1.56], P = 0.0113 for women; 0.91 [0.72−1.15], P = 0.4244 for men; P for interaction = 0.0133).  CONCLUSIONS Sex modified the effect of the rAI on incident hypertension in a Chinese, community-based, non-hypertensive population. Screening of the rAI could be considered in women with a high risk of hypertension for the purpose of primary intervention.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017; 390: 1151-1210.
    Wang Z, Chen Z, Zhang L, et al. Status of hypertension in China: results from the China hypertension survey, 2012-2015. Circulation 2018; 137: 2344−2356. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032380
    Kaess BM, Rong J, Larson MG, et al. Aortic stiffness, blood pressure progression, and incident hypertension. JAMA 2012; 308: 875−881. doi: 10.1001/2012.jama.10503
    Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Shetty V, et al. Pulse wave velocity is an independent predictor of the longitudinal increase in systolic blood pressure and of incident hypertension in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 1377−1383. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.065
    Liao D, Arnett DK, Tyroler HA, et al. Arterial stiffness and the development of hypertension. The ARIC study. Hypertension 1999; 34: 201−206. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.34.2.201
    Dernellis J, Panaretou M. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive subjects. Hypertension 2005; 45: 426−431. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000157818.58878.93
    Safar ME, Levy BI, Struijker-Boudier H. Current perspectives on arterial stiffness and pulse pressure in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Circulation 2003; 107: 2864−2869. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000069826.36125.B4
    O'Rourke MF, Hashimoto J. Mechanical factors in arterial aging: a clinical perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50: 1−13. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.12.050
    Tomiyama H, O'Rourke MF, Hashimoto H, et al. Central blood pressure: a powerful predictor of the development of hypertension. Hypertens Res 2013; 36: 19−24. doi: 10.1038/hr.2012.123
    Tomiyama H, Townsend RR, Matsumoto C, et al. Arterial stiffness/central hemodynamics, renal function, and development of hypertension over the short term. J Hypertens 2014; 32: 90−99. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283658e7d
    Tomiyama H, Komatsu S, Shiina K, et al. Effect of wave reflection and arterial stiffness on the risk of development of hypertension in Japanese men. J Am Heart Assoc 2018; 7: e008175.
    Regitz-Zagrosek V, Oertelt-Prigione S, Prescott E, et al. Gender in cardiovascular diseases: impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 24−34. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv598
    Shufelt CL, Pacheco C, Tweet MS, et al. Sex-Specific Physiology and Cardiovascular Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 2018; 1065: 433−454.
    Singh M, Mensah GA, Bakris G. Pathogenesis and clinical physiology of hypertension. Cardiol Clin 2010; 28: 545−559. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2010.07.001
    Mitchell GF. Arterial stiffness and hypertension. Hypertension 2014; 64: 13−18. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.00921
    Le VP, Knutsen RH, Mecham RP, et al. Decreased aortic diameter and compliance precedes blood pressure increases in postnatal development of elastin-insufficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011; 301: H221−H229. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00119.2011
    Salaymeh KJ, Banerjee A. Evaluation of arterial stiffness in children with Williams syndrome: Does it play a role in evolving hypertension? Am Heart J 2001; 142: 549−555. doi: 10.1067/mhj.2001.116763
    Zheng X, Jin C, Liu Y, et al. Arterial stiffness as a predictor of clinical hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015; 17: 582−591. doi: 10.1111/jch.12556
    Benetos A, Adamopoulos C, Bureau J, et al. Determinants of accelerated progression of arterial stiffness in normotensive subjects and in treated hypertensive subjects over a 6-year period. Circulation 2002; 105: 1202−1207. doi: 10.1161/hc1002.105135
    Yambe M, Tomiyama H, Yamada J, et al. Arterial stiffness and progression to hypertension in Japanese male subjects with high normal blood pressure. J Hypertens 2007; 25: 87−93. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000254375.73241.e2
    Koivistoinen T, Lyytikainen LP, Aatola H, et al. Pulse wave velocity predicts the progression of blood pressure and development of hypertension in young adults. Hypertension 2018; 71: 451−456. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10368
    Ji H, Kim A, Ebinger JE, et al. Sex differences in blood pressure trajectories over the life course. JAMA Cardiol 2020; 5: 19−26.
    Ogola BO, Zimmerman MA, Clark GL, et al. New insights into arterial stiffening: does sex matter? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018; 315: H1073−H1087. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00132.2018
    DuPont JJ, Kenney RM, Patel AR, et al. Sex differences in mechanisms of arterial stiffness. Brit J Pharmacol 2019; 176: 4208−4225. doi: 10.1111/bph.14624
    Scuteri A, Morrell CH, Orrù M, et al. Longitudinal perspective on the conundrum of central arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and aging. Hypertension 2014; 64: 1219−1227. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04127
    Shimizu M, Kario K. Role of the augmentation index in hypertension. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 2: 25−35. doi: 10.1177/1753944707086935
    Chirinos JA, Zambrano JP, Chakko S, et al. Aortic pressure augmentation predicts adverse cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary artery disease. Hypertension 2005; 45: 980−985. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000165025.16381.44
    Weber T, Auer J, O'Rourke MF, et al. Increased arterial wave reflections predict severe cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Eur Heart J 2005; 26: 2657−2663. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi504
    Chen CH, Ting CT, Nussbacher A, et al. Validation of carotid artery tonometry as a means of estimating augmentation index of ascending aortic pressure. Hypertension 1996; 27: 168−175. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.27.2.168
    Sugawara J, Komine H, Hayashi K, et al. Relationship between augmentation index obtained from carotid and radial artery pressure waveforms. J Hypertens 2007; 25: 375−381. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32801092ae
    Melenovsky V, Borlaug BA, Fetics B, et al. Estimation of central pressure augmentation using automated radial artery tonometry. J Hypertens 2007; 25: 1403−1409. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32811d69df
    Sugawara J, Komine H, Yoshiwaza M, et al. Racial differences in relation between carotid and radial Augmentation Index. Artery Res 2010; 4: 15−18. doi: 10.1016/j.artres.2009.12.002
    Segers P, Rietzschel E, Heireman S, et al. Carotid tonometry versus synthesized aorta pressure waves for the estimation of central systolic blood pressure and augmentation index. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18: 1168−1173. doi: 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.04.005
    Kohara K, Tabara Y, Oshiumi A, et al. Radial augmentation index: a useful and easily obtainable parameter for vascular aging. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18(1 Pt 2): 11S−14S.
    Millasseau SC, Patel SJ, Redwood SR, et al. Pressure wave reflection assessed from the peripheral pulse: is a transfer function necessary? Hypertension 2003; 41: 1016−1020. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000057574.64076.A5
    Zahner GJ, Gruendl MA, Spaulding KA, et al. Association between arterial stiffness and peripheral artery disease as measured by radial artery tonometry. J Vasc Surg 2017; 66: 1518−1526. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2017.06.068
    Rosenbaum D, Giral P, Chapman J, et al. Radial augmentation index is a surrogate marker of atherosclerotic burden in a primary prevention cohort. Atherosclerosis 2013; 231: 436−441. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.10.004
    Xiao WK, Ye P, Luo LM, et al. [Radial augmentation index is associated with cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2011; 50: 831−835 [In Chinese].
    Takenaka T, Mimura T, Kanno Y, et al. Qualification of arterial stiffness as a risk factor to the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Am J Nephrol 2005; 25: 417−424. doi: 10.1159/000087605
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(1)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (39) PDF downloads(1) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint