ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R
Volume 18 Issue 8
Aug.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Please cite this article as: D’Errico S, La Russa R, Maiese A, Santurro A, Scopetti M, Romano S, Zanon M, Frati P, Fineschi V. Atypical antipsychotics and oxidative cardiotoxicity: review of literature and future perspectives to prevent sudden cardiac death. J Geriatr Cardiol 2021; 18(8): 663−685. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.002
Citation: Please cite this article as: D’Errico S, La Russa R, Maiese A, Santurro A, Scopetti M, Romano S, Zanon M, Frati P, Fineschi V. Atypical antipsychotics and oxidative cardiotoxicity: review of literature and future perspectives to prevent sudden cardiac death. J Geriatr Cardiol 2021; 18(8): 663−685. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.002

Atypical antipsychotics and oxidative cardiotoxicity: review of literature and future perspectives to prevent sudden cardiac death

doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.08.002
More Information
  • Oxidative stress is considered the principal mediator of myocardial injury under pathological conditions. It is well known that reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in myocardial injury and repair at the same time and that cellular damage is generally due to an unbalance between generation and elimination of the free radicals due to an inadequate mechanism of antioxidant defense or to an increase in ROS and RNS. Major adverse cardiovascular events are often associated with drugs with associated findings such as fibrosis or inflammation of the myocardium. Despite efforts in the preclinical phase of the development of drugs, cardiotoxicity still remains a great concern. Cardiac toxicity due to second-generation antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine) has been observed in preclinical studies and described in patients affected with mental disorders. A role of oxidative stress has been hypothesized but more evidence is needed to confirm a causal relationship. A better knowledge of cardiotoxicity mechanisms should address in the future to establish the right dose and length of treatment without impacting the physical health of the patients.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Divac N, Prostran M, Jakovcevski I, et al. Second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal adverse effects. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 656370. doi: 10.1155/2014/656370
    [2]
    Curto M, Girardi N, Lionetto L, et al. Systematic review of clozapine cardiotoxicity. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2016; 18: 68. doi: 10.1007/s11920-016-0704-3
    [3]
    Lee TW, Tsai SJ, Hwang JP. Severe cardiovascular side effects of olanzapine in elderly patient: case report. Int J Psychiatry Med 2003; 33: 399−401. doi: 10.2190/U99G-XDML-0GRG-BYE0
    [4]
    Coulter DM, Bate A, Meyboom RH, et al. Antipsychotic drugs and heart muscle disorder in international pharmacovigilance: data miming study. BMJ 2001; 322: 1207−1209. doi: 10.1136/bmj.322.7296.1207
    [5]
    Li KJ, Greenstein AP, Delisi LE. Sudden death in schizophrenia. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018; 31: 169−175. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000403
    [6]
    Abdel-Wahab BA, Abdalla ME, El-khawanki MM. Does clozapine induce myocarditis, myocardial oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats? Egypt J Forensic Sci 2014; 4: 75−82. doi: 10.1016/j.ejfs.2014.04.001
    [7]
    Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H, et al. Clozapine-associated myocarditis: a review of 116 cases of suspected myocarditis associated with the use of clozapine in Australia during 1993–2003. Drug Saf 2007; 30: 47−57. doi: 10.2165/00002018-200730010-00005
    [8]
    Vang T, Rosenzweig M, Bruhn CH, et al. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine-report of two possible cases. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 70. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0776-y
    [9]
    Papazisis G, Mastrogianni O, Chatzinikolaou F, et al. Sudden cardiac death due to quetiapine overdose. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012; 66: 535. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2012.02385.x
    [10]
    Wu CS, Tsai YT, Tsai HJ. Antipsychotic drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death: a nation-wide case-crossover study. J Am Heart Assoc 2015; 4: e001568. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001568
    [11]
    Pillinger T, Osimo EF, de Marvao A, et al. Cardiac structure and function in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic drugs: an MRI study. Transl Psychiatry 2019; 9: 163. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0502-x
    [12]
    Khan AA, Ashraf A, Baker D, et al. Clozapine and incidence of myocarditis and sudden death: long-term Australian experience. Int J Cardiol 2017; 238: 136−139. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.03.013
    [13]
    Fineschi V, Neri M, Riezzo I, et al. Sudden cardiac death due to hypersensitivity myocarditis during clozapine treatment. Int J Legal Med 2004; 118: 307−309. doi: 10.1007/s00414-004-0464-1
    [14]
    Barber S, Thornicroft G. Reducing the mortality gap in people with severe mental disorders: the role of lifestyle psychosocial interventions. Front Psychiatry 2018; 9: 463. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00463
    [15]
    Engl J, Laimer M, Fleischhacker WW, et al. To: Mackin P, Watkinson HM, Young AH (2005) Prevalence of obesity, glucose homeostasis disorders and metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients taking typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs: a cross-sectional study. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 1430−1431. doi: 10.1007/s00125-005-1788-1
    [16]
    Kritharides L, Chow V, Lambert TJ, et al. Cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia. Med J Aust 2017; 206: 91−95. doi: 10.5694/mja16.00650
    [17]
    Salvo F, Pariente A, Shakir S, et al. Sudden cardiac and sudden unexpected death related to antipsychotics: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2016; 99: 306−314. doi: 10.1002/cpt.250
    [18]
    Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, et al. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 225−235. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806994
    [19]
    Lynge TH, Nielsen TS, Gregers Winkel B, et al. Sudden cardiac death caused by myocarditis in persons aged 1–49 years: a nationwide study of 14, 294 deaths in Denmark. Forensic Sci Res 2019; 4: 247−256. doi: 10.1080/20961790.2019.1595352
    [20]
    De Berardis D, Rapini G, Olivieri L, et al. Safety of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia: a focus on the adverse effects of clozapine. Ther Adv Drug Saf 2018; 9: 237−256. doi: 10.1177/2042098618756261
    [21]
    Arias LHM, Fadrique RS, García SP, et al. Antipsychotics and cardiovascular risk: a case/non-case study. Psychiatry Res 2018; 270: 341−347. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.09.014
    [22]
    Xu T, Ding W, Ji X, et al. Oxidative stress in cell death and cardiovascular diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019: 9030563. doi: 10.1155/2019/9030563
    [23]
    Korkmaz S, Korkmaz H, Özer Ö, et al. Assessment of left ventricle systolic and diastolic functions in schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Res 2016; 240: 348−351. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.025
    [24]
    Chow V, Yeoh T, Ng AC, et al. Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction with long-term clozapine treatment for schizophrenia: a multicentre cross-sectional cohort study. Open Heart 2014; 1: e000030. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2013-000030
    [25]
    Curto M, Comparelli A, Ciavarella GM, et al. Impairment of left ventricular function early in treatment with clozapine: a preliminary study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2015; 30: 282−289. doi: 10.1097/YIC.0000000000000085
    [26]
    Unsal C, Oran M, Tureli HO, et al. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2013; 9: 1531−1537. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S52030
    [27]
    Li X, Peng Z, Zhou Y, et al. Quetiapine induces myocardial necroptotic cell death through bidirectional regulation of cannabinoid receptors. Toxicol Lett 2019; 313: 77−90. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.06.005
    [28]
    Peoples JN, Saraf A, Ghazal N, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in heart disease. Exp Mol Med 2019; 51: 1−13. doi: 10.1038/s12276-019-0355-7
    [29]
    Collin F. Chemical basis of reactive oxygen species reactivity and involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20: 2407. doi: 10.3390/ijms20102407
    [30]
    Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Spanou C, et al. Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and comparative consideration of some overlooked issues. J Exp Biol 2012; 215: 1615−1625. doi: 10.1242/jeb.067470
    [31]
    Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis C. 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): a critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2009; 27: 120−139. doi: 10.1080/10590500902885684
    [32]
    Xu T, Ding W, Ji X, et al. Oxidative stress in cell death and cardiovascular diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019: 9030563. doi: 10.1155/2019/9030563
    [33]
    Murphy E, Steenbergen C. Mechanisms underlying acute protection from cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Physiol Rev 2008; 88: 581−609. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00024.2007
    [34]
    Zhang M, Prosser BL, Bamboye MA, et al. Contractile function during angiotensin-II activation: increased NOX2 activity modulates cardiac calcium handling via phospholamban phosphorylation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 66: 261−272. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.020
    [35]
    Zhang M, Brewer AC, Schröder K, et al. NADPH oxidase-4 mediates protection against chronic load-induced stress in mouse hearts by enhancing angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107: 18121−18126. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1009700107
    [36]
    Duncan JG. Mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; 1813: 1351−1359. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.01.014
    [37]
    Senoner T, Dichtl W. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases: still a therapeutic target? Nutrients 2019; 11: 2090. doi: 10.3390/nu11092090
    [38]
    Reilly JG, Ayis SA, Ferrier IN, et al. QTc-interval abnormalities and psychotropic drug therapy in psychiatric patients. Lancet 2000; 355: 1048−1052. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02035-3
    [39]
    Zemva A, Zemva Z. Ventricular ectopic activity, left ventricular mass, hyperinsulinemia, and intracellular magnesium in normotensive patients with obesity. Angiology 2000; 51: 101−106. doi: 10.1177/000331970005100202
    [40]
    Smith RC, Leucht S, Davis JM. Maximizing response to first-line antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a review focused on finding from meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019; 236: 545−559. doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-5133-z
    [41]
    Howell S, Yarovova E, Khwanda A, et al. Cardiovascular effects of psychotic illnesses and antipsychotic therapy. Heart 2019; 105: 1852−1859. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312107
    [42]
    Mackin P. Cardiac side effects of psychiatric drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2008; 23: S3−S14. doi: 10.1002/hup.915
    [43]
    Jensen KG, Juul K, Fink-Jensen A, et al. Corrected QT changes during antipsychotic treatment of children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2015; 54: 25−36. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2014.10.002
    [44]
    Lin YL, Wu YC, Tsai GF. Electrocardiographic monitoring for QT prolongation in patients treated with ziprasidone--a claims database approach. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009; 18: 842−847. doi: 10.1002/pds.1791
    [45]
    Coulter DM, Bate A, Meyboom RH, et al. Antipsychotic drugs and heart muscle disorder in international pharmacovigilance: data mining study. BMJ 2001; 322: 1207−1209. doi: 10.1136/bmj.322.7296.1207
    [46]
    Kerwin RW, Bolonna AA. Is clozapine antisuicidal? Expert Rev Neurother 2004; 4: 187−190. doi: 10.1586/14737175.4.2.187
    [47]
    Patel RK, Moore AM, Piper S, et al. Clozapine and cardiotoxicity: a guide for psychiatrists written by cardiologists. Psychiatry Res 2019; 282: 112491. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112491
    [48]
    Merrill DB, Dec GW, Goff DC. Adverse cardiac effects associated with clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25: 32−41. doi: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000150217.51433.9f
    [49]
    Bugge E, Nissen T, Wynn R. Probable clozapine-induced parenchymal lung disease and perimyocarditis: a case report. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 438. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-1158-1
    [50]
    Türe M, Bilici M, Akın A, et al. Complete atrioventricular block associated with clozapine intoxication: case report. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 618−621. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2019.04.024
    [51]
    Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H, et al. Clozapine-associated myocarditis: a review of 116 cases of suspected myocarditis associated with the use of clozapine in Australia during 1993–2003. Drug Saf 2007; 30: 47−57. doi: 10.2165/00002018-200730010-00005
    [52]
    Meeker JE, Herrmann PW, Som CW, et al. Clozapine tissue concentrations following an apparent suicidal overdose of Clozaril. J Anal Toxicol 1992; 16: 54−56. doi: 10.1093/jat/16.1.54
    [53]
    Bandelow B, Degner D, Kreusch U, et al. Myocarditis under therapy with clozapine. Schizophr Res 1995; 17: 293−294. doi: 10.1016/0920-9964(95)00047-X
    [54]
    Wassef N, Khan N, Munir S. Quetiapine-induced myocarditis presenting as acute STEMI. BMJ Case Rep 2015; 2015: bcr2014207151. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-207151
    [55]
    Varga ZV, Ferdinandy P, Liaudet L, et al. Drug-induced mithocondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2015; 309: H1453−H1467. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00554.2015
    [56]
    Cerretani D, Fineschi V, Bello S, et al. Role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity and cocaine-related death. Curr Med Chem 2012; 19: 5619−5623. doi: 10.2174/092986712803988785
    [57]
    Turillazzi E, Cerretani D, Cantatore S, et al. Myocardial oxidative damage is induced by cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in human cocaine-related overdose. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 44262. doi: 10.1038/srep44262
    [58]
    Matsui H, Morishima I, Numaguchi Y, et al. Protective effects of carvedilol against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Life Sci 1999; 65: 1265−1274. doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00362-8
    [59]
    Doroshow JH, Locker GY, Ifrim I, et al. Prevention of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity in the mouse by N-acetylcysteine. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 1053−1064. doi: 10.1172/JCI110328
    [60]
    Kilian JG, Kerr K, Lawrence C, et al. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy associated with clozapine. Lancet 1999; 354: 1841−1845. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)10385-4
    [61]
    Hägg S, Spigset O, Bate A, et al. Myocarditis related to clozapine treatment. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001; 21: 382−388. doi: 10.1097/00004714-200108000-00005
    [62]
    Patel RK, Moore AM, Piper S, et al. Clozapine and cardiotoxicity: a guide for psychiatrists written by cardiologists. Psychiatry Res 2019; 282: 112491. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112491
    [63]
    Christoffersen RK, Vestergård LD, Høimark L, et al. [Eosinophilic myocarditis and sudden unexpected death in a younger patient treated with antipsychotics]. Ugeskr Laeger 2011; 173: 2799−2800. [In Danish].
    [64]
    Wang JF, Min JY, Hampton TG, et al. Clozapine-induced myocarditis: role of catecholamines in a murine model. Eur J Pharmacol 2008; 592: 123−127. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.088
    [65]
    Breier A, Buchanan RW, Waltrip RW 2nd, et al. The effect of clozapine on plasma norepinephrine: relationship to clinical efficacy. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994; 10: 1−7. doi: 10.1038/npp.1994.1
    [66]
    Elman I, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, et al. Mechanism of peripheral noradrenenrgic stimulation by clozapine. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999; 20: 29−34. doi: 10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00047-5
    [67]
    Nikolić-Kokić A, Tatalović N, Nestorov J, et al. Clozapine, ziprasidone, and serindole-induced moprhological changes in the rat heart and their relationship to antioxidant enzymes function. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018; 81: 844−853. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2018.1495587
    [68]
    Pirmohamed M, Williams D, Madden S, et al. Metabolism and bioactivation of clozapine by human liver in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 272: 984−990. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600840323
    [69]
    Abdel-Wahab BA, Metwally ME, El-khawanki MM, et al. Protective effect of captopril against clozapine-induced myocarditis in rats: role of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and DNA damage. Chem Biol Interact 2014; 216: 43−52. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.03.012
    [70]
    Vaddadi KS, Soosai E, Vaddadi G. Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55: 307−309. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01773.x
    [71]
    Heiser P, Sommer O, Schmidt AJ, et al. Effects of antipsychotics and vitamin C on the formation of reactive oxygen species. J Psychopharmacol 2010; 24: 1499−1504. doi: 10.1177/0269881109102538
    [72]
    Williams DP, O’Donnell CJ, Maggs JL, et al. Bioactivation of clozapine by murine cardiac tissue in vivo and in vitro. Chem Res Toxicol 2003; 16: 1359−1364. doi: 10.1021/tx034035z
    [73]
    Pollmächer T, Hinze-Selch D, Mullington J. Effects of clozapine on plasma cytokine and soluble cytokine receptor levels. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1996; 16: 403−409. doi: 10.1097/00004714-199610000-00011
    [74]
    Abdel-Wahab BA, Metwally ME. Clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity: role of oxidative stress, tumour necrosis factor Alpha and NF-κβ. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2015; 15: 355−365. doi: 10.1007/s12012-014-9304-9
    [75]
    Shin WS, Szuba A, Rockson SG. The role of chemokines in human cardiovascular pathology: enhanced biological insights. Atherosclerosis 2002; 160: 91−102. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00571-8
    [76]
    Haack MJ, Bak ML, Beurskens R, et al. Toxic rise of clozapine plasma concentrations in relation to inflammation. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2003; 13: 381−385. doi: 10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00042-7
    [77]
    Nimata M, Okabe TA, Hattori M, et al. MCI-186 (edaravone), a novel free radical scavenger, protects against acute autoimmune myocarditis in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 289: H2514−H2518. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00661.2005
    [78]
    Sovari AA, Rutledge CA, Jeong EM, et al. Mitochondria oxidative stress, connexin43 remodeling, and sudden arrhythmic death. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2013; 6: 623−631. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.112.976787
    [79]
    Arumugam S, Thandavarayan RA, Veeraveedu PT, et al. Beneficial effects of edaravone, a novel antioxidant, in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cell Mol Med 2012; 16: 2176−2185. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01526.x
    [80]
    Watanabe N, Nakagawa S, Fukunaga T, et al. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis successfully treated by high dose methylprednisolone. Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 923−926. doi: 10.1253/jcj.65.923
    [81]
    Xie X, Zhao Y, Ma CY, et al. Dimethyl fumarate induces necroptosis in colon cancer cells through GSH depletion/ROS increase/MAPKs activation pathway. Br J Pharmacol 2015; 172: 3929−3943. doi: 10.1111/bph.13184
    [82]
    Frangogiannis NG, Smith CW, Entman ML. The inflammatory response in myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res 2002; 53: 31−47. doi: 10.1016/S0008-6363(01)00434-5
    [83]
    Ishiyama S, Hiroe M, Nishikawa T, et al. Nitric oxide contributes to the progression of myocardial damage in experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats. Circulation 1997; 95: 489−496. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.95.2.489
    [84]
    Hogan K, Ahmed O, Markos F. N-desmethylclozapine an M1 receptor agonist enhances nitric oxide’s cardiac vgal facilitation in the isolated innervated rat right atrium. Auton Neurosci 2007; 137: 51−55. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2007.07.002
    [85]
    Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. Role of nitroso radicals as drug targets in circulatory shock. Br J Pharmacol 2009; 157: 494−508. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00255.x
    [86]
    Finkel MS, Oddis CV, Jacob TD, et al. Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxide. Science 1992; 257: 387−389. doi: 10.1126/science.1631560
    [87]
    Belhani D, Frassati D, Mégard R, et al. Cardiac lesions induced by neuropleptic drugs in the rabbit. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006; 57: 207−212. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2005.09.003
    [88]
    Yan H, Li WL, Xu JJ, et al. D2 dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride induces non-canonical autophagy in cardiac myocytes. J Cell Biochem 2013; 114: 103−110. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24306
    [89]
    Shinoda Y, Tagashira H, Bhuiyan MS, et al. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction. J Pharmacol Sci 2016; 131: 172−183. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2016.05.012
    [90]
    Roden DM. Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1013−1022. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra032426
    [91]
    Meléndez GC, McLarty JL, Levick SP, et al. Interleukin 6 mediates myocardial fibrosis, concentric hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction in rats. Hypertension 2010; 56: 225−231. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.148635
    [92]
    Johnson TL, Tulis DA, Keeler BE, et al. The dopamine D3 receptor knockout mouse mimics aging-related changes in autonomic function and cardiac fibrosis. PLoS One 2013; 8: e74116. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074116
    [93]
    Pacher P, Schulz R, Liaudet L, et al. Nitrosative stress and pharmacological modulation of heart failure. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2005; 26: 302−310. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2005.04.003
    [94]
    Li S, Jiao X, Tao L, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mechanic trauma plasma mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007; 293: H1847−H1852. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00578.2007
    [95]
    Heiser P, Sommer O, Schmidt AJ, et al. Effects of antipsychotics and vitamin C on the formation of reactive oxygen species. J Psychopharmacol 2010; 24: 1499−1504. doi: 10.1177/0269881109102538
    [96]
    Duncan JG. Mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; 1813: 1351−1359. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.01.014
    [97]
    Joseph LC, Subramanyam P, Radlicz C, et al. Mitochondrial oxidative stress during cardiac lipid overload causes intracellular calcium leak and arrhythmia. Heart Rhythm 2016; 13: 1699−1706. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.05.002
    [98]
    Gong F, Gu J, Wang H. Up regulated Tmbim1 activation promotes high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancement of inflammation and oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018; 504: 797−804. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.08.059
    [99]
    Tse G, Yan BP, Chan YW, et al. Reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: the link with cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Front Physiol 2016; 7: 313. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00313
    [100]
    Bornfeldt KE, Tabas I. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis. Cell Metab 2011; 14: 575−585. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.07.015
    [101]
    Tompkins AJ, Burwell LS, Digerness SB, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury: ROS from complex I, without inhibition. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006; 1762: 223−231. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.10.001
    [102]
    Sugiyama K, Sasano T, Kurokawa J, et al. Oxidative stress induced ventricular arrhythmia and impairment of cardiac function in NOS1AP deleted mice. Int Heart J 2016; 57: 341−349. doi: 10.1536/ihj.15-471
    [103]
    Manu P, Kane JM, Correll CU. Sudden deaths in psychiatric patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2011; 72: 936−941. doi: 10.4088/JCP.10m06244gry
    [104]
    Kelly DL, Wehring HJ, Linthicum J, et al. Cardiac-related findings at autopsy in people with severe mental illness treated with clozapine or risperidone. Schizophr Res 2009; 107: 134−138. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.020
    [105]
    Kelly DL, McMahon RP, Liu F, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with clozapine: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry 2010; 71: 304−311. doi: 10.4088/JCP.08m04718yel
    [106]
    Ifteni P, Correll CU, Burtea V, et al. Sudden unexpected death in schizophrenia: autopsy findings in psychiatric inpatients. Schizophr Res 2014; 155: 72−76. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.03.011
    [107]
    Jones ME, Campbell G, Patel D, et al. Risk of mortality (including sudden cardiac death) and major cardiovascular events in users of olanzapine and other antipsychotics: a study with the general practice research database. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2013; 2013: 647476. doi: 10.1155/2013/647476
    [108]
    Tietze F. Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal Biochem 1969; 27: 502−522. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(69)90064-5
    [109]
    Shara MA, Dickson PH, Bagchi D, et al. Excretion of formaldehyde, malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats in response to 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, paraquat, endrin and carbon tetrachloride. J Chromatogr 1992; 576: 221−233. doi: 10.1016/0378-4347(92)80196-W
    [110]
    Santurro A, Vullo AM, Borro M, et al. Personalized medicine applied to forensic sciences: new advances and perspectives for a tailored forensic approach. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017; 18: 263−273. doi: 10.2174/1389201018666170207141525
    [111]
    La Russa R, Catalano C, Di Sanzo M, et al. Postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) and traditional autopsy in cases of sudden cardiac death due to coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiol Med 2019; 124: 109−117. doi: 10.1007/s11547-018-0943-y
    [112]
    Di Sanzo M, Cipolloni L, Borro M, et al. Clinical applications of personalized medicine: a new paradigm and challenge. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017; 18: 194−203. doi: 10.2174/1389201018666170224105600
    [113]
    La Russa R, Fineschi V, Di Sanzo M, et al. Personalized medicine and adverse drug reactions: the experience of an Italian teaching hospital. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017; 18: 274−281. doi: 10.2174/1389201018666170207124835
    [114]
    Borro M, Gentile G, Cipolloni L, et al. Personalised healthcare: the DiMA clinical model. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017; 18: 242−252. doi: 10.2174/1389201018666170208125131
    [115]
    Ariyarajah V, Shaikh N, Garber PJ, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in mild to moderate clozapine-induced myocarditis: is there a role in the absence of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities? J Magn Reson Imaging 2010; 31: 1473−1476. doi: 10.1002/jmri.21988
    [116]
    Bellissima BL, Tingle MD, Cicović A, et al. A systematic review of clozapine-induced myocarditis. Int J Cardiol 2018; 259: 122−129. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.12.102
    [117]
    Gareri P, De Fazio P, Russo E, et al. The safety of clozapine in the elderly. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2008; 7: 525−538. doi: 10.1517/14740338.7.5.525
    [118]
    Hussein O, Izikson L, Bathish Y, et al. Anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins in psychiatric patients before and after two months of atypical anti-psychotic therapy. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29: 1262−1270. doi: 10.1177/0269881115598320
    [119]
    Jerrell JM, McIntyre RS, Tripathi A. Incidence and costs of cardiometabolic conditions in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic medications. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 2010; 4: 161−168. doi: 10.3371/CSRP.4.3.2
    [120]
    Katta N, Balla S, Aggarwal K. Clozapine-induced hypersensitivity myocarditis presenting as sudden cardiac death. Autops Case Rep 2016; 6: 9−13. doi: 10.4322/acr.2016.054
    [121]
    Kontoangelos K, Loizos S, Kanakakis J, et al. Myocarditis after administration of clozapine. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014; 18: 2383−2386.
    [122]
    Korkmaz H, Korkmaz S. Hearts and minds: real-life cardiotoxicity with clozapine in psychosis. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2019; 39: 694. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001117
    [123]
    Lang UE, Willbring M, von Golitschek R, et al. Clozapine-induced myocarditis after long-term treatment: case presentation and clinical perspectives. J Psychopharmacol 2008; 22: 576−580. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082136
    [124]
    Marti V. Sudden cardiac death due to risperidone therapy in a patient with possible hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39: 973. doi: 10.1345/aph.1E539
    [125]
    Peters S, Klein HU. Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias due to atypical mid-ventricular tako tsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with chronic QT interval prolongation under anti-psychotic medication. Int J Cardiol 2014; 172: e534−e536. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.01.111
    [126]
    Polcwiartek C, Sneider B, Graff C, et al. The cardiac safety of aripiprazole treatment in patients at high risk for torsade: a systematic review with a meta-analytic approach. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015; 232: 3297−3308. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4024-9
    [127]
    Polcwiartek C, Kragholm K, Schjerning O, et al. Cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics: a clinical overview. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2016; 15: 679−688. doi: 10.1517/14740338.2016.1161021
    [128]
    Serrano A, Rangel N, Carrizo E. Safety of long-term clozapine administration. Frequency of cardiomyopathy and hyponatraemia: two cross-sectional, naturalistic studies. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2014; 48: 183−192. doi: 10.1177/0004867413502089
    [129]
    Sicouri S, Antzelevitch C. Sudden cardiac death secondary to antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2008; 7: 181−194. doi: 10.1517/14740338.7.2.181
    [130]
    Smolders DME, Smolders WAP. Case report and review of the literature: cardiomyopathy in a young woman on high-dose quetiapine. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017; 17: 478−481. doi: 10.1007/s12012-016-9390-y
    [131]
    Vieweg WV. New generation antipsychotic drugs and QTc interval prolongation. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 5: 205−215. doi: 10.4088/PCC.v05n0504
    [132]
    Zhu J, Hou W, Xu Y. Antipsychotic drugs and sudden cardiac death: a literature review of the challenges in the prediction, management, and future steps. Psychiatry Res 2019; 281: 112598. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112598
    [133]
    Arumugam S, Thandavarayan RA, Veeraveedu PT. Beneficial effects of edaravone, a novel antioxidant, in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cell Mol Med 2012; 16: 2176−2185. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01526.x
    [134]
    Auger F, Martin F, Pétrault O. Risperidone-induced metabolic dysfunction is attenuated by Curcuma longa extract administration in mice. Metab Brain Dis 2018; 33: 63−77. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0133-y
    [135]
    Dogan HO, Ersan EE, Aydin H. Thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2018; 16: 39−45. doi: 10.9758/cpn.2018.16.1.39
    [136]
    Fehsel K, Loeffler S, Krieger K. Clozapine induces oxidative stress and proapoptotic gene expression in neutrophils of schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25: 419−426. doi: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000177668.42640.fe
    [137]
    Hendouei N, Farnia S, Mohseni F, et al. Alterations in oxidative stress markers and its correlation with clinical findings in schizophrenic patients consuming perphenazine, clozapine and risperidone. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 103: 965−972. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.109
    [138]
    Nikolić-Kokić A, Tatalović N, Nestorov J, et al. Clozapine, ziprasidone, and sertindole-induced morphological changes in the rat heart and their relationship to antioxidant enzymes function. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018; 81: 844−853. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2018.1495587
    [139]
    Padurariu M, Ciobica A, Dobrin I, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients treated with typical and atypical antipsychotics. Neurosci Lett 2010; 479: 317−320. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.05.088
    [140]
    Vidović B, Dorđević B, Milovanović S, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia: relationship with metabolic risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013; 156: 22−28. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9842-1
    [141]
    Abu-Elsaad N, El-Karef A. The falconoid luteolin mitigates the myocardial inflammatory response induced by high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet in wistar rats. Inflammation 2018; 41: 221−231. doi: 10.1007/s10753-017-0680-8
    [142]
    Akao M, O’Rourke B, Teshima Y, et al. Mechanistically distinct steps in the mitochondrial death pathway triggered by oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes. Circ Res 2003; 92: 186−194. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000051861.21316.E9
    [143]
    Brown DA, O’Rourke B. Cardiac mitochondria and arrhythmias. Cardiovasc Res 2010; 88: 241−249. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvq231
    [144]
    Fineschi V, Michalodimitrakis M, D’Errico S. Insight into stress-induced cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death due to stress. A forensic cardio-pathologist point of view. Forensic Sci Int 2010; 194: 1−8. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.10.025
    [145]
    Javadi B, Sahebkar A. Natural products with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities against autoimmune myocarditis. Pharmacol Res 2017; 124: 34−42. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.07.022
    [146]
    Karagueuzian HS, Katzung BG. Voltage-clamp studies of transient inward current and mechanical oscillations induced by ouabain in ferret papillary muscle. J Physiol 1982; 327: 255−271. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1982.sp014230
    [147]
    Kilian JG, Kerr K, Lawrence C, et al. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy associated with clozapine. Lancet 1999; 354: 1841−1845. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)10385-4
    [148]
    Kishimoto C, Shioji K, Kinoshita M, et al. Treatment of acute inflammatory cardiomyopathy with intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates left ventricular function associated with suppression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased oxidative stress. Int J Cardiol 2003; 91: 173−178. doi: 10.1016/S0167-5273(03)00002-0
    [149]
    Koponen H, Alaräisänen A, Saari K, et al. Schizophrenia and sudden cardiac death: a review. Nord J Psychiatry 2008; 62: 342−345. doi: 10.1080/08039480801959323
    [150]
    Krexi L, Georgiou R, Krexi D, et al. Sudden cardiac death with stress and restraint: the association with sudden adult death syndrome, cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease. Med Sci Law 2016; 56: 85−90. doi: 10.1177/0025802414568483
    [151]
    Li YC, Luo Q, Ge LS, et al. Ivabradine inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase in acute coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013; 431: 450−455. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.12.147
    [152]
    Marian AJ, Senthil V, Chen SN, et al. Antifibrotic effects of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in a mouse model of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47: 827−834. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.10.041
    [153]
    Mito S, Watanabe K, Harima M. Curcumin ameliorates cardiac inflammation in rats with autoimmune myocarditis. Biol Pharm Bull 2011; 34: 974−979. doi: 10.1248/bpb.34.974
    [154]
    Miyamoto S, Kawano H, Sakamoto T, et al. Increased plasma levels of thioredoxin in patients with coronary spastic angina. Antioxid Redox Signal 2004; 6: 75−80. doi: 10.1089/152308604771978363
    [155]
    Octavia Y, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Moens AL. NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in the failing heart: from pathogenic roles to therapeutic approach. Free Radic Biol Med 2012; 52: 291−297. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.10.482
    [156]
    Pacher P, Szabo C. Role of the peroxynitrite-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway in human disease. Am J Pathol 2008; 173: 2−13. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080019
    [157]
    Raucci A, Di Maggio S, Scavello F, et al. The Janus face of HMGB1 in heart disease: a necessary update. Cell Mol Life Sci 2019; 76: 211−229. doi: 10.1007/s00018-018-2930-9
    [158]
    Shimada K, Uzui H, Ueda T, et al. N-acetylcysteine ameliorates experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats via nitric oxide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2015; 20: 203−210. doi: 10.1177/1074248414547574
    [159]
    Singh OP, Chakraborty I, Dasgupta A, et al. A comparative study of oxidative stress and interrelationship of important antioxidants in haloperidol and olanzapine treated patients suffering from schizophrenia. Indian J Psychiatry 2008; 50: 171−176. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.43627
    [160]
    Skrzypiec-Spring M, Haczkiewicz K, Sapa A, et al. Carvedilol inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation in experimental autoimmune myocarditis: possibilities of cardioprotective application. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2018; 23: 89−97. doi: 10.1177/1074248417725058
    [161]
    Sukumaran V, Veeraveedu PT, Gurusamy N, et al. Cardioprotective effects of telmisartan against heart failure in rats induced by experimental autoimmune myocarditis through the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2/angiotensin 1-7/mas receptor axis. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7: 1077−1092. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.7.1077
    [162]
    Wu B, Li J, Ni H. TLR4 activation promotes the progression of experimental autoimmune myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy by inducing mitochondrial dynamic imbalance. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018: 3181278. doi: 10.1155/2018/3181278
    [163]
    Yang KC, Kyle JW, Makielski JC, et al. Mechanisms of sudden cardiac death: oxidants and metabolism. Circ Res 2015; 116: 1937−1955. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304691
    [164]
    Yuan Z, Shioji K, Kihara Y, et al. Cardioprotective effects of carvedilol on acute autoimmune myocarditis: anti-inflammatory effects associated with antioxidant property. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 286: H83−H90. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00536.2003
    [165]
    Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, et al. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 225−235. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806994
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(2)  / Tables(4)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (100) PDF downloads(21) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return