Background Hyperhomocysteine is an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, whether hyperhomocysteine affects the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of hyperhomocysteine on the formation of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr–/–) mice. Methods Forty-eight 7-week-old LDLr–/– mice were assigned to the following groups: mice fed a standard rodent diet (control group), mice fed a high-methionine diet (high-methionine group), mice fed a high-fat diet (high-fat group), and mice fed a diet high in both methionine and fat (high-methionine and high-fat group). At the age of 19, 23, and 27 weeks, four mice at each interval in every group were sacrificed. Results At the end of the study, mice did not show atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and aortic surface until 27 weeks old in the control group. However, atherosclerotic lesions developed in the other three groups at 19 weeks. The amount of atherosclerotic lesions on the aortic surface was lower in the high-methionine group than in the high-fat group (P P Conclusions Homocysteinemia accelerates atherosclerotic lesions and induces early atherosclerosis independently in LDLr–/– mice. Reducing the level of homocysteinemia may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of CHD.