Objective Heart failure is a major disease seriously threatening human health. Once left ventricular dysfunction develops, cardiac function usually deteriorates and progresses to congestive heart failure in several months or years even if no factors which accelerate the deterioration repeatedly exist. Mechanism though which cardiac function continually deteriorates is still unclear. Cardiomyocytic apoptosis can occur in acute stage of ischemic heart diseases and the compensated stage of cardiac dysfunction. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the role of cardiomyocytic apoptosis in heart failure.