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Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque features: Findings from coronary imaging
Osamu Kurihara, Masamichi Takano, Yasushi Miyauchi, Kyoichi Mizuno, Wataru Shimizu
, Available online  , doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.07.001
Pathological studies have suggested that features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques likely to progress and lead to acute cardiovascular events have specific characteristics. Given the progress of intravascular coronary imaging technology, some large prospective studies have detected features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques using these imaging modalities. However, the rate of cardiovascular events, such as acute coronary syndrome, has been found to be considerably reduced in the limited follow-up period available in the statin era. Additionally, not all disrupted plaques lead to thrombus formation with clinical presentation. If sub-occlusive or occlusive thrombus formation does not occur, a thrombus on a disrupted plaque will organize without any symptoms, forming a “healed plaque”. Although vulnerable plaque detection using intracoronary imaging is focused on “thin-cap fibroatheroma” leading to plaque rupture, superficial plaque erosion is increasingly recognized; however, the underlying mechanism of thrombus formation on eroded plaques is not well understood. One of intravascular imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the highest image resolution and has enabled detailed characterization of the plaque in vivo. Here, we reviewed the status and limitations of intravascular imaging in terms of detecting vulnerable plaque through mainly OCT studies. We suggested that vulnerable plaque should be reconsidered in terms of eroded plaque and healed plaque and that both plaque and circulating blood should be assessed in greater detail accordingly.
Downregulation of miR-181a-5p alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation in coronary microembolization-induced myocardial damage by directly targeting XIAP
You ZHOU, Man-Yun LONG, Zhi-Qing CHEN, Jun-Wen HUANG, Zhen-Bai QIN, Lang LI
, Available online  , doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.06.007
 BACKGROUND Coronary microembolization (CME) is a complicated problem that commonly arises in the context of coronary angioplasty. MicroRNAs play crucial roles in cardiovascular diseases. However, the role and mechanism of miR-181a-5p in CME-induced myocardial injury remains unclear. METHODS We established CME rat models. Cardiac function was detected by echocardiography. Haematoxylin-basic fuchsin-picric acid staining was used to measure micro-infarction size. Serum samples and cell culture supernatants were evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species were determined by dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay, and the other oxidative stress related parameters were assayed by spectrophotometry. The dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay and RNA pulldown were conducted to validate the association between miR-181a-5p and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The expression of miR-181a-5p and XIAP mRNA were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Proteins were evaluated via immunoblotting. The viability of the cell was evaluated via cell counting kit-8 assay. RESULTS The miR-181a-5p level was significantly increased in CME myocardial tissues. Downregulation of miR-181a-5p improved CME-induced cardiac dysfunction and alleviated myocardial oxidative stress and inflammatory injury, whereas miR-181a-5p exhibited the opposite effects. Then, the DLR assay and RNA pulldown results revealed that miR-181a-5p directly targeting on XIAP. The XIAP level was found to be remarkably decreased after CME. XIAP overexpression attenuated CME-induced myocardial oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. Finally, in vitro rescue experiments revealed that knockdown of XIAP could abolish the protective effects of miR-181a-5p knockdown on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. CONCLUSIONS Downregulation of miR-181a-5p alleviates CME-induced myocardial damage by suppressing myocardial oxidative stress and inflammation through directly targeting XIAP.
Severe bleeding following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: predictive factors and risk model
Yu LIU, Xing WANG, Zi-Ying CHEN, Wen-Li ZHANG, Lin GUO, Yong-Quan SUN, Hong-Zhan CUI, Ji-Qiang BU, Jian-Hui CAI
, Available online  , doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.06.006
Abstract(281) FullText HTML (140) PDF(2)
 BACKGROUND Severe bleeding following cardiac surgery remains a troublesome complication, but to date, there is a lack of comprehensive predictive models for the risk of severe bleeding following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). This study aims to analyze relevant indicators of severe bleeding after isolated OPCABG and establish a corresponding risk assessment model. METHODS The clinical data of 584 patients who underwent OPCABG from January 2018 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. We gathered the preoperative baseline data and postoperative data immediately after intensive care unit admission and used multifactor logistic regression to screen the potential predictors of severe bleeding, upon which we established a predictive model. Using the consistency index and calibration curve, decision curve, and clinical impact curve analysis, we evaluated the performance of the model. RESULTS This study is the first to establish a risk assessment and prediction model for severe bleeding following isolated OPCABG. Eight independent risk factors were identified: male sex, aspirin/clopidogrel withdrawal time, platelet count, fibrinogen level, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and total bilirubin. Among the 483 patients in the training group, 138 patients (28.6%) had severe bleeding; among the 101 patients in the verification group, 25 patients (24.8%) had severe bleeding. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for the internal training group revealed a convincing performance with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.859, while the area under the ROC curve for the external validation data was 0.807. Decision curve analysis showed that the model was useful for both groups. CONCLUSIONS Although there are some limitations, the model can effectively predict the probability of severe bleeding following isolated OPCABG and is therefore worthy of further exploration and verification.