2017 Vol. 14, No. 4
The field of geriatric cardiology reflects the evolving medical approaches tailored to address the needs of the growing population of oldest old with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The burden of CVD is expected to increase particularly for the most common types of chronic heart disease of the elderly including coronary artery disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In this context of dramatic demographic changes, geriatric cardiologists are facing important challenges. In this review, we outline the basic concepts of geriatric cardiology and describe these challenges as well as the unmet needs around this discipline with also a focus on the translation from basic research.
Atrial fibrosis is common in atrial fibrillation (AF). Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that fibrotic transformation of atrial myocardium results in deterioration of atrial conduction, increasing anisotropy of impulse propagation and building of boundaries that promote re-entry in the atrial walls that maybe directly relevant for the mechanisms responsible for maintaining AF. Whether or not fibrosis is a result of structural remodelling caused by persistent AF or a manifestation of occult myocardial process that leads to development of arrhythmia is less clear. Human data indicate the presence of association between persistency of AF and the extent of structural changes in atrial myocardium. The role atrial fibrosis plays in the mechanisms of AF, however, may differ between patients with structurally normal hearts, such as lone AF, and those with advanced cardiovascular comorbidities.
Backgrounds Clinical trials have demonstrated that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in patients with “non-is?chemic cardiomyopathy”. However, patients with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (DHCM) have been generally excluded from such trials. We aimed to compare the clinical outcome of CRT in patients with DHCM, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), or ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Methods A total of 312 consecutive patients (DHCM: n = 16; IDCM: n = 231; ICM: n = 65) undergoing CRT in Fuwai hospital were studied respectively. Response to CRT was defined as reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) ? 15% at 6-month follow-up. Results Compared with DHCM, IDCM was associated with a lower total mortality (HR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13–0.90), cardiac mortality (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11–0.77), and total mortality or heart failure (HF) hospitalizations (HR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17–0.69), independent of known confounders. Compared with DHCM, the total mortality, cardiac mortality and total mortality or HF hospitalizations favored ICM but were not statistically significant (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.22–1.61; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.21–1.63; HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.26–1.15; respectively). Response rate to CRT was lower in the DHCM group than the other two groups although the differences didn’t reach statistical significance. Conclusions Compared with IDCM, DHCM was associated with a worse outcome after CRT. The clinical outcome of DHCM patients receiving CRT was similar to or even worse than that of ICM patients. These indicate that DHCM behaves very differently after CRT.
Background Transradial coronary procedure (TRP) traumatizes the radial artery (RA), especially resulting in changes to arterial wall morphology. This study explored the significance of the early onset of traumatic effects to wall layers of the RA following the first TRP (FTRP) and repeat TRP (RTRP) using very-high-frequency ultrabiomicroscopy (VHFUBM). Methods A total of 1431 patients that received TRP were divided into the FTRP group that comprised 781 patients and the RTRP group that comprised 650 patients depending on the number of procedures. Two-dimensional RA images were acquired by 30–55 MHz ultrasound one day before and one day after the procedure. Results After TRP, the incidence of intimal tears, medial dissections and external elastic lamina fracture were greater in the RTRP (P P Conclusions Multivariate linear regression analysis discovered that repeated TRP and other observations were independent predictors of increased IT in post-operative RA. VHFUBM provides an approach to study structural and histopathological injury in the wall layers of RA which showed increased trauma to the RA following RTRP.
Background There are limited data on long-term (> 5 years) outcomes of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for ostial/midshaft left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions. Methods Of the 259 consecutive patients in Beijing Anzhen Hospital with ostial/midshaft LMCA lesions, 149 were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES and 110 were with CABG. The endpoints of the study were death, repeat revascularization, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, the composite of cardiac death, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE, the composite of cardiac death, MI, stroke or repeat revascularization).The duration of follow-up is 7.1 years (interquartile range 5.3 to 8.2 years). Results There is no significant difference between the PCI and CABG group during the median follow-up of 7.1 years (interquartile range: 5.3–8.2 years) in the occurrence of death (HR: 0.727, 95% CI: 0.335–1.578; P = 0.421), the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI or stroke (HR: 0.730, 95% CI: 0.375–1.421; P = 0.354), MACCE (HR: 1.066, 95% CI: 0.648–1.753; P = 0.801), MI (HR: 1.112, 95% CI: 0.414–2.987; P = 0.833), stroke (HR: 1.875, 95% CI: 0.528–6.659; P = 0.331), and repeat revascularization (HR: 1.590, 95% CI: 0.800–3.161; P = 0.186). These results remained after multivariable adjusting. Conclusion During a follow-up up to 8.2 years, we found that DES implantation had similar endpoint outcomes compared with CABG.
Background Transvenous lead placement is the standard approach for left ventricular (LV) pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), while the open chest access epicardial lead placement is currently the most frequently used second choice. Our study aimed to compare the ventricular electromechanical synchronicity in patients with heart failure after CRT with these two different LV pacing techniques. Methods We enrolled 33 consecutive patients with refractory heart failure secondly to dilated cardiomyopathy who were eligible for CRT in this study. Nineteen patients received transvenous (TV group) while 14 received open chest (OP group) LV lead pacing. Intra- and inter-ventricular electromechanical synchronicity was assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) before and one year after CRT procedure. Results Before CRT procedure, the mean QRS-duration, maximum time difference to systolic peak velocity among 12 left ventricle segments (LV Ts-12), standard deviation of time difference to systolic peak velocity of 12 left ventricle segments (LV Ts-SD), and inter-ventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) in OP and TV group were 166 ± 17 ms and 170 ± 21 ms, 391 ± 42 ms and 397 ± 36 ms, 144 ± 30 ms and 148 ± 22 ms, 58 ± 25 ms and 60 ± 36 ms, respectively (all P > 0.05). At one year after the CRT, the mean QRS-duration, LV Ts-12, LV Ts-SD, and IVMD in TV and OP group were 128 ± 14 ms and 141 ± 22 ms (P = 0.031), 136 ± 37 ms and 294 ± 119 ms (P = 0.023), 50 ± 22 ms and 96 ± 34 ms (P = 0.015), 27 ± 11 ms and 27 ± 26 ms (P = 0.86), respectively. The LV lead implantation procedure time was 53.4 ± 16.3 min for OP group and 136 ± 35.1 min for TV group (P = 0.016). The mean LV pacing threshold increased significantly from 1.7 ± 0.6 V/0.5 ms to 2.3 ± 1.6 V/0.5 ms (P Conclusions Compared to conventional endovascular approach, open chest access of LV pacing for CRT leads to better improvement of the intraventricular synchronization.
Objective To explore predictors of the 6-month clinical outcome of thalamic hemorrhage, and evaluate if minimally invasive thalamic hematoma drainage (THD) could improve its prognosis. Methods A total of 54 patients with spontaneous thalamic hemorrhage were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical data, including demographics, stroke risk factors, neuroimaging variables, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) on admission, surgical strategy, and outcome, were collected. Clinical outcome was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale, six months after onset. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of a poor outcome. Results Conservative treatment was performed for five patients (9.3%), external ventricular drainage (EVD) for 20 patients (37.0%), THD for four patients (7.4%), and EVD combined with THD for 25 patients (46.3%). At six months after onset, 21 (38.9%) patients achieved a favorable outcome, while 33 (61.1%) had a poor outcome. In the univariate analysis, predictors of poor 6-month outcome were lower GCS on admission (P = 0.001), larger hematoma volume (P P = 0.035), acute hydrocephalus (P = 0.039), and no THD (P = 0.037). The independent predictors of poor outcome, according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, were no THD and larger hematoma volume. Conclusions Minimally invasive THD, which removes most of the hematoma within a few days, with limited damage to perihematomal brain tissue, improved the 6-month outcome of thalamic hemorrhage. Thus, THD can be widely applied to treat patients with thalamic hemorrhage.
Background Hypoxemia often occurs in the emergency room in the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in those with administration of conventional high-flow oxygen inhalation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in improving blood oxygen content and hemorheology in patients with AMI and hypoxemia. Methods This prospective study enrolled 50 consecutive eligible patients with AMI (aged 72.3 ± 9.5 years), who had undergone PCI and been administered high-flow oxygen but still had hypoxemia. Blood was taken before NIV and at 0.5, 1, and 2 h after NIV. Blood gases, hemorheological variables including erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, membrane fluidity, and oxidative stress level were measured. Results Blood PaO2 increased to normal by 1 h after NIV. Assessed hemorheological variables had all improved and plasma malondialdehyde concentration decreased significantly after 2 h of NIV. Conclusions Our data suggest that NIV can help to improve blood oxygen content, hemorheological status, and minimize plasma lipid peroxidation injury in hypoxemic patients with AMI who have undergone PCI.